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made him in >all things obedient to her


(I) The sear of losing the succession to the English crown, and the pension he enjoyed from Elizabeth, made him in all things obedient to her will.] James loved not Elizabeth, for she kept him under restraint}, protected his nobility against him; fomented divisions, in his kingdom; and'had caused his mother to be put to death. In short, he looked on her as the cause of all his troubles. These things he strongly complains of in his reasons for his reconcilement with Rome, and consederacy with Spain (a). But yet notwithstanding the grudge^) winhe bore her, he resused her nothing, nor dared to con- wood, Vol. tradict her. For he had a yearly pension from the queen,,' p" a' I think, ten thoufand pounds, the loss of which he could not well bear1; which was increased in the yeas' 1601, two thoufand more, upon his request. "Her *' majesty (fays Cecyll) promising to continue it, as long "as he (hall make it appear to the world, he i& "willing to deserve her extrao ,,linary care and kind"ness towards him." (b) This was a good round sumM H- Pat that time of day in Scotland, and therefore it behoved31S" 'James to make it appear that he deserved it, by complying with her, whose bounty he so largely shared in. But that which kept James most in awe was the sear of losing the succession to the English crown. His being next in blood (though afterwards much talked of by him) was no security; had he behaved displeasingly to Elizabeth, and once made her heartily angry, 'tis more than probable he would have died in his own country. For by a statute of the 13th year of her reign, it was made high treason for any person to affirm, " that the "reigning prince with the authority of the parliament, "is not able to limit and bind the crown, and the de"scent and inheritance thereof." This was the rod which was held over James, and made him sear and tremble. For he could never get himself declared by Elizabetbhet successor, and he knew sull well what she 1 ^3 •was

He was not much regarded in Scotland by hisnobility,whichwasowing,perhaps,asmuch to their restless temper, as his weakness (K);


was capable of doing when provoked. He therefore stifled his anger, dissembled his resentments, and did not publicldy do any thing disobliging to Elizabeth. His private behaviour in his negotiations with Rome and Spain, could not but be unacceptable. But she probably despised them, , and took care to frustrate them, and contented herself with letting the whole world see that she was mistress of the Scotch king, and stood in no sear of what he might do. So that the passion with which he received the news of his mother's death, and the threats he uttered were but mere words, and he was cooled down presently by Walsingham's letter, " representing how "much his pretending to revenge it, would prejudice "him in the eyes of the antient nobility, by the greatest "part of whom she was condemned, and of principal "part of the gentlemen of the realm, who consirmed '' the fame in parliament; who would never submit to '' his government, if he shewed so vindictive a mind." {e) Spots- (<r) Those Scotch and English therefore were in the wood, p. right, who assured the English council, it would soon 3 p* be forgot; and '' that the blood was already fallen from

(y)Melvil, " his majesty's heart." (d) For he was afraid of cons' l73' sequences, and therefore durst not attempt %o sulfil his threats.

(K) He was not much regarded by his nobility, &c.] He makes it a reason for his joining with Spain, that f* queen Elizabeth had always protected his enemies and t* rebels, and that by their means she had caused him (a) Win- s' to be three or four times taken into custody." (a) wood.Vol.l. whether or no Elizabeth was at the bottom of all the attempts of the nobility against James, is not my business to determine. But 'tis very certain they paid him but little regard, and scrupled not to bring him to terms, even by rough methods. The affair of Ruthven has


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been already mentioned: besides which we sind the banished Lords surprized him at Stirling, and causer1 him once more to dismiss Arran, and deprive him of his honours; and Bothwell took the fame course with him to obtain his pardon,' and hinder his adverfaries from returning to courts).

These were instances of disrespect and disregard, and 34 could arise from nothing but an opinion of the weakness of the prince to whom they were offered. Though it must be confessed that the Scotch nobility in those days were of a bold, restless temper, and were seldom quiet any longer than things went just as they pleased; and therefore were unlikely to stand in much awe of one, whose irresolution and want of courage had been from his childhood so very remarkable.

(L) His clergy behaved disobediently, as he thought, towards him.] *' The king perceiving that the death "of his mother was determined, gave orders to the *' ministers to remember her in their public prayers; "which they denied to do. Upon their denial, charges *' were directed to command all bishops, ministers, and ** other ossice-bearers in the church, to make mention *' of her distress in their public prayers, and commend "her to God, But of all the number, Mr. David "Lindesay at Leitk, and the king's own ministers, gave "obediencel At Edinburgh, where the disobedience "was most public, the king purposing to have their ** fault amended, did appoint the third of February *' for solemn prayers to be made in her behalf, com"manding the bishop of St. Andrew's to prepare him*' self for that day; which when the ministers under"stood, they stirred up Mr. John Cowper, a young "man not entered as yet in the function, to take the ** pulpit before the time, and exclude the bishop. The


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For this he hated them most heartily jhut dissembled his resentment, till he could

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"king coming at the hour appointed", and seeing him M in the place, called to him from his feat, and faid* "Mr. John, that phce was destinate for another; yet, "since you are there, if you will obey the charge that i "is given, and remember my moiher in }our prayers, "you (hall go on. He replying, he would do as the "spirit of God Jljould direii him, was commanded ta '; leave the place;, and making as though he would "stay, the captain of the guard went to pull him out;

whereupon he burst forth in these speeches, tins day \ "jhall be a witness against the king, in the great day of *i the Lord; and then Renouncing a woe to the inhabi

>(*\TM*~ * ' tants of Edinburgh, he went down." (a) This be-. ''haviour seems to favour much of indecency and disobedience, and I doubt not but the reader is inclined to censure it accordingly. But let us not be too hasty, lest: we judge unrighteous judgment. The ministers, I think, failed more in breeding than any thing else; for what was required of them, was to pray that God would illuminate far (Mary) with the light of his truth, and [ave her from the apparent danger in which Jhe was cast. Now this latter they' could not in conscience do: for they looked upon her in the most detestable light, and wished not for her preservation, believing it inconsistent with the good of the state and religion. And therefore, fays secretary Walsingham, *' it was wonder". ed* by all wife and religious men in England, that "the king should be so earnest in the cause of his mo," ther, seeing all the papists in Europe that affected the "change of" religion in both realms, did build their

(J>) H. "hopes altogether upon her." (b) If therefore the Scots ministers thought as all the wife and religious men in England did, about this matter, they could not consistently, with sincerity, have prayed for her deliverance. The king therefore should have forborne pressing them to do what was contrary .to their judgments, and they

\ • j • should show it with fafety; when he iet all rt)en know how much their conduct galled him, and what ill will he bare unto them (M).


should have used civil and respectful terms of refufal; which, if they had done, I apprehend, they would have been free from blame. But this was not the only affair in which the clergy of Scotland behaved disobediently and irreverently towards James.

For Mr. Robert Bruce, finding the king willing that Huntley should return into Scotland, boldly told him, *' I fee, Sir, that your resolution is to take Huntley in"to favour, which if you do, I will oppose, and you "shall chuse whether you will lose Huntley or me; for "both you cannot keep." (c) Mr. Blake was likewiseJ^^",^ charged by him with faying, " that he had detected ** the treachery of his heart; that all kings were the "devil's barns; and that the devil was in the court,

"and in the guiders of it." (d) And Mr. John^TM'*'

Welch, in the high church of Edinburgh, faid" the

"king was possessed with a devil, , and one devil being

"put out, seven worse were entered in,his place." id.p.

This was strange talking, and what could not but be43°.

very displeasing to James, though he had not power

enough to curb and restrain those who were guilty of it.

(M) He dissembled with them, till with fafety he could shew his resentment, &c.] Notwithstanding all , the rudeness with which he had been treated by his clergy in the general assembly at Edinburgh, 1590, he stood "up with his bonnet off, and his hands lifted up to '5' heaven, and faid, he praised God, that he was born "in the time of the light of the gospel, and in such a' "place, as to be king of such a church, the sincerest "[purest] kirk in the world. The church of Geneva "keep pasche and yule [Easter and Christmas] what "have they for them? they have no^ institution. As "for our neighbour kirk of England, their service *' is an evil faid mass in English; they want nothing


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