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good policy, and the conduct of queen Elizabeth, who valued herself, not'unjustly, on
find engaging every State possible against him? Might not the fame thing have been done by James, a»d that without injuring the British, any more than Lewis the thirteenth did the French nation? Guftavus Adolpbus indeed was a great captain, and headed a brave army; But a great captain and a brave army could not have been wanting, had the king of Great Britain fallen heartily into the war, and supported it, as the king of France afterwards did by the persons and purses of his people. In short as a protestant, James was concerned, to prevent the increase of the power of Ferdinand, and hinder him from triumphing; for every victory of his was a wound to the interest of the religion professed by him.
But we sec that he was so far from doing what he ought so have done in this matter, that he sufsered the Bohernians to be reduced ; his son in-law to be expelled his dominions; and the protestants to be brought to the very brink of ruin in Germany 5 from which only they were delivered by the force of Gujlawts, and the abilities of Richlieu. Nor were the reformed in France more indebted to James, than those in the empire. At his accession to the English throne, the dulces la Tremouille, and Bouillon, together with the famous du Plejftsx had a design to make him protector of the calvinist party U) See in France, (e) But they soon laid aside their design .Suily'a me- after navlng had a thorough knowledge of his character, ?£"''' °'For no man interested himself less than James in their affairs, no prince gave them less assistance. He resused to spe.ik to Henry she fourth in favour of Bouillon^ when solicited by him to do it, because he faid it did not bef/)ld, ibid, pome a great prince to intercede for a rebel subject, (f) And though the reformed were a very considerable body ^4. in France, possessed of places of strength and importance
and capable with proper help, of making head against ajj their enemies,, as they had sully manisested in the
the aids she from time to time had given them, to her own, as well as their great advantage,
former civil wars : though they were thus powerful, and consequently Important, he stood, tamely by, and faw them divested of their strong holds, and rendered almost wholly insignificant as a party. 'Tis true, James kept up a kind of correspondence with Bouillon, whom at first he had resused to intercede for, and by him gave assurances of his " assisting the reformed if the whole '' body was assailed, the edicts broken, and they in "danger of apparent ruin: in which case (fays Bucks' ingham, in a letter to Sir Thomas Edmonds) his ma•' jesty doth engage himself to assist them; which '' though he should have no other means to perform, he *' will call a parliament for that purpose, not doubting ♦* but his people will be as ready to surnish him with "means, as his majesty to engage himself to aid them •' in that cause." (g) But James was not as good as W B!**£ his word. The reformed were assailed soon after, °egotiathough not in a body; the edicts were broken in num-tions, &c berlefs instances, particularly in taking from them their P' 4°6, strong towns; and they were in danger of apparent ruin; (h) and yet I know not that James afforded them (b) See the least assistance, any farther than by ordering his am- Howeir* bassadors to use their good offices on their behalf, oT'l'nl' *' Yea, we are fssured by the duke of Rohan himself, Hist, of th« 'c one of the protestant chiefs, that "James urged him by edict of '' letters (in any case) to make a peace, and to submit u^'Y"1' •c to, and wholly rely upon the promises of his own so- 420.' w vereign, pressing him moreover to consider the affairs * ' of his son-in-law, and assuring him that he could not m Duke of *' possibly give the reformed any assistance." (z) Rohan's
Had the reformed been properly aided during the mi- dis<:°ufse upnority of Lewis the thirteenth, their power probably made b£"rTM would have been so great, thatRichlieu's arts would not Mompeiiier have overturned it: nor would France have given thatp. +♦• ".tk* disturbance to Europe she did, under Lewis the four- memojr, tfenfk,} *S Advantages (fays a noble author) might 8'o. Lond.
• * pave 1660.
vantage. Though he was not a catholic in persuasion, he favoured those that were, provided
,' have been taken of the divisions which religion oc"casioned; and supporting the protestant party in "France, would have kept that crown under restraints, "and under inabilities, in some measure equal to those "which were occasioned anciently by the vast aliena"tions of its demesnes, and by the exorbitant power of its vassals. But 'James the firjl was incapable of broket ut-" thinkjng with fense, or ading with spirit." (i) ters on the And the writer of Tom TiU-Traath, addressed to fludyanduse James, and printed about the year 1622, has the folVol.'n°rp. jpw'ng passage. "They (the French protestants) are 1S1. 8vo. "indeed so many hostages which God almighty has Lond. 1752. (c pUt ;nt0 y0ur majesties hands to secure you, and your "majesties dominions, from all danger of that countryj aad to lose them were no other (in my opi"nion) than wilfully to tempt God, to deliver us into the hands of our enemies. As long as God hath any "children in France, we shall be sure to have bre"thren there. But they once gone, your brother of "France will quickly shew whose child he is, and how "incompatible the obedience he owes him (the pope) is "with any good-will he can bear your majestic Since "then the Tye you have upon that prince's friendship is ", of so loose a knot, what can your majesty do better "sor yourself, and yours, than to keep his enmity still' "clogged, by cherishing and maintaining so good a (I) H*rkiw party in his country, as thofe of the religion." (/) Vo"u"y' ^Vhat Kelty means by faying James made the in„'' tereftof the protestants his own, on more than one occasion, I know not. He refers us indeed to the em(«}S*e Krf. baffies of Sir Edward Herbert, and the earl of Carlisle menn\°rl~ into France, in order to intercede for the Hugoiiots, irsrks on the latter of whom he observes from Rapin, spent vast tbeiite or sums, and consequently his master must be much in ''"to^Lond earne^ to^o them service. («*) But what service did ''James do them? what success had his applications?
none vided they would swear allegiance unto hirji; and he not only relaxed [4 c] the rigour of
none; and therefore we may be sure, he very little regarded them. Had this gentjeman known the character of the earl of Carlisle as one of the moll expensive, luxurious men then living, he would have interpreted the words of Rapines he ought. The vast Aims spent by Carlijle, were not on the business of the Hugonotc, or to promote their affairs; but in dress, equipage and house keeping, in which he knew no bounds. But I ask pardon for taking so much notice of the mistakes of a writer of so little consequence, either as to knowledge or judgment.
[4 c] He not pnly relaxed the rigor of the laws in their favour, but consented to such terms for them in the marriage articles with Spain and France, as few of his protestant's subjects approved.] It appears from a letter of Matthew Hutton, archbishop of York, to Cecyll, lord Cranborne, dated December 18, 1604, that the papists by " reason of some extraordinary favour "were grown mightily in number, courage, and in"fluence." (a) They were in great hopes of a tolera- M Wintion, when they faw James set against the puritans l"I°od'4^°1* and it became so much the general expectation among 't>' them, that in order to clear himself of having intentions of granting it to them, his majesty thought proper to declare that " he never intended it, and would "spend the last drop of his blood before he would do it, "and uttered that imprecation on his posterity, if they "should maintain any other religion, than what he "truly profesied and maintained," of which I have before taken notice, (b) (*},I*• p.
Not content herewith, he ordered the laws against ^"jjU them to be piit in execution, and they underwent many of them great hardships, (c) Upon the discovery M See of the popish plot, there was a general prosecution ofp. all papists let on foot, as might ws\\ be expected: "but
the laws in their favour, but consented to
*' k'ng James was very uneasy at it, fays Burnet, '* which was much encreased by what Sir Dudley Carl'' ton told him upon his return from Spain, »where he *' had been ambassador; (which I had from-lord f/ollis, . *' who faid to me, that Sir Dudley Carlton told it to '' himself, and was much troubled when he faw it had 'c an efsect contrary to what he had intended.) When '* he came home, he found the king at Theobald's, *' hunting in a very careless and unguarded manner: "and upon that, in order to the putting him on a *' more caresul looking to himself, he told the king he '* must either give over that way of hunting, or stop *' another hunting he was engaged in, which was priest '• hunting: For he had intelligence in Spam, that the "priests were comforting themselves with this, that if *' he went on against them, they would soon get rid of
"him.— The king sent for him in private to en
'* quire more particularly into this; and he faw it had
*' made a great impression on him, but wrought other
"'wise than he intended. For the king resolved to gra
"tify his humour in hunting, and in a careless and ir
"regular way of lise, did immediately order all that
*' prosecution to be let fall. I have the minutes of the
'*' council books of the year 1606, which are sull of or
"ders to discharge and transport priests, sometimes ten
(j) Burner, '' in a day," (</)—j was inclined at first to call this
'p* whole story of Burnet's into question, by reason that
(»)Se e Carhton was never ambassador into Spain: (e) but on
Wood's surther search find it probable enough.
O'on. Vol. ^or Carhton, in the year 1605, accompanied the lord
l.col. tfy Norrisinto Spain, and there might hear what he is faid
(/) Wm- to have spoken to James, (f) So that there is only a
li°°>' °* small mistake in Burnet, and his account is very proba
57. and ble. For tho' laws were enacted against the catholics,
Bitch** and the judges commanded on occasion to put them in
negotiation, execution, yet James had a great affection for them,
p. *27. and conserred on them many marks of his favour.