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lie had been a kind of martyr for that profession, though he never shewed his regard to


*' the boot being the fame that ever it was, as may ap*' pear by the great prosiciency of others. This won"derfully poseth me, and sure there is some guile, *' some wile, in some of my fellow students, who hide "my book from me, or some part of it; all the fault is *' not in my own blockishness, that I thrive no better; "I once feared this before, that some did me ill "offices. Your grace was pleased to protest no man "had; and to assure me no man could. My heart ** tells me it hath been always upright, and is still most "faithful unto you. I have examined my actions, my "words, and my very thoughts, and found all of "them, ever since, most sound unto your grace. ** Give me leave to comfort myself with recordation "of your loving kindnesses of old, when on that great "feast day of your being inaugured our chancellor [of "Cambridge'] my look was your book, wherein you "read fadness, to which I was bold to answer, 1 trust*' ed your grace would give me no cause. You replied ** (with loss of blood rather ) But God forbid so pre*' cious an effusion. (I would rather empty all my veins *' than you should bleed one drop) when as one blast of *' your breath is able to bring me to the haven where I *• would be. My lord, I am grown an old man, and *• am like old houshold fluff, apt to be broke upon often "removing. I desire it therefore but once for all, "be it Elv, or Bath and Wells; and I will spend the *' remainder of my days in writing an history of your ** good deeds to me and others, whereby 1 may vindi"cate you from the envy, and obloquy of this present "wicked age wherein we live, and whilst I live in' *' praying for your grace, whose I am, totally and

, sinally.

"Theophilus Landaven." (g) (?) Cabala,

p. 117.

P 2 A man

those of that persuasion in Germany of Fiance, but suffered them to be oppressed by


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A man who could obtain a good bishoprick, by such arts as these, with great sincerity of soul, no doubt,might fay, nolo episcopari I I don't know whether 'ti& Worth while to observe that Field's flattery and sycophancy availed nothing with Buckingham. He had been too much used to ir, and so had lost its relish. Money was what he wanted: but Field was poor, had a w ise and six children,'and consequently could advance little; and therefore remained where he was, till Dec. 15, J635, long after Villier* death, when he wasremoved to Hereford, which he enjoyed not more than half a year, (r) I would not have the reader think ecclesiastical preferments are now obtained by like means as in the days of "James. Buckingham having obtained riches and honors in abundance for himself and'all his relations, grew quite insolent: Insomuch that he was once about to strike prince Charles: (j) and at another

time bid him in plain terms kiss his a , yea towards

"James himself, he was highly insolent. For when his majesty atternpted to dissuade him and the prince from taking the journey into Spain, to which he had before thoughtlessly given his consent; he rudely told him, "no body could believe any thing he faid, when he re"tracted so soon the promise he had made; that he plain"ly discerned that it proceeded from aqather breach of "his word, in communicating with some rascal, who "had furnished him with those pitiful reasofis- he had "alledged, and that he doubted not but he should here"after know who his counsellor had been." (r) 1st short, directly contrary to the mind of his master, he irritated the parliament against Spain; reflected on the conduct of the earl of Bristol^ and told them what was not true with relation to him, and set on a prosecution against him; and ruined' the earl of Middlesex, (I mean with respect to his power) tho' intreated by the king to the contrary. («) But James bore all this, tho' not

without the houses of Bourbon, and Zuflria, [4 B]


without uneafiness; and submitted to be led by his favourite quite contrary to his inclinations. A sure sign of his weakness! For princes have it in their power at all times to be obeyed, if they require nothing contrary to the laws : and such of them as suffer themselves to be affronted, contradicted or menaced by their servants, and yet continue unto them their favour, (hew unto all men that they are unworthy to be trusted wi;h the government and defence of a whole people. For their courage and understanding can be but of a very low

kind. However, possibly the fame reaibn which

induced James to pardon Somerset, made him bear the insolence of Buckingham.

[4 B] He professed himself a protestant, and boasted of his having been a kind of martyr for that profession, —but he suffered those of that persuasion in France and Germany, to be oppressed by the houses of Bourbon, and /iujlria.'] In his speech to the parliament in the year 1624, we have the following expressions: " What "religion I am of, my books do declare, my profes"sion and behaviour doth shew; and I hope in God I "shall never live to be thought otherwise; surely I "shall never deserve it; and for my part, I wish it "may be written in marble, and remain to posterity as *' a mark upon me, when I shall swerve from my re"ligion; for he that doth dissemble with God, is not "to be trusted with men.

"My Iprds, for my part, I protest before God, that "my heart hath bled, when I have heard of the increase . " of popery; God is my judge, it hath been such a "great grief to me, that it hath been as thorns in my "eyes, and pricks in my sides; and so far I have been, "and shall be, from turning another way. And, my "lords and gentlemen, you (hall be my confessors, that "one way or other it hath been my desire to hinder the "growth of popery; and I could not have been an "honest man, if 1 should have done, otherwise. And P 3 "this

without affording them assistance of any


"this I may fay surther, that if I be not a martyr, I *' am sure I am a consessor; and in some sense I may be "called a martyr, as in the scripture, Isaac was persc*' cuted by IJhmael, by mocking words ; for never king "suffered more ill tongues than I have done; and I fa) Frank- "am sure for no cause." (a)—" Long before this, in land's an- 'c in tne year 160g» ln a speech at Whitehall, he fays, »*• l•*' that with his own pen he had brought the pope's quar*' rel upon him, and proclaimed publique defiance to (4) King *' Babylon." (b) Would not one think from thence Jao^5ss that James had the protestant interest at heat, and that J44. '. he was a mighty champion for it? that he had taken it under his protection, and had fought zealously in its cause f those who knew not the man, might have been imposed on by his speeches; such as did, could nor. We have seen nis unaccountable behaviour in the business of the Palatinate, the loss of which had well nigh terminated in the total ruin of the protestant religion in Germany, as also of the liberties of Europe. ¥ ox Ferdinand the second aimed at nothing less than being ab• solute master ovtr the Germanic body, and in conjunction with Spain, to have given the law to all around him. The consequence of which must have been the total extirpation of the reformed every where. But James was no way alarmed at the consequence. H,e would not endeavour to prevent it, but remained in a manner neuter, if you'll believe him, " for conscience, "honour, and example's fake. In regard of conscience "judging it unlawsul to inthrone or dethrone kings for "religion's fake; having a quarrel against the Jesuits, *' for holding that opinion. Besides, he faw the world "inclined to make that a war of religion, which he "would never do. In point of honour ; for that when "he sent his ambasfador into Germany, to treat of "peace, in the interim, his son-in-law had taken the "crown upon him. And for example's fake; holding '' it a dangerous president against all christian princes,

"to value; directly contrary to all the maxims of


"to allow a sudden translation of crowns by the peo** pie's authority." (c) With such pretences as these did W Rusl,; he cover his cowardice, and his unconcern about the i. p. 16. civil and religious rights of Europe.

Wars to propagate religion, are whimsical and impious: But wars for the defence of its professors, may be very just and lawful. To have assisted Frederick and his honest Bohemians; to have encouraged and kept together the princes of the union; to have diverted the power of Spain, which was atthe corrimandof Ferdinand; and by every honest art to have risen a force capable of withstanding the emperor, was at that time incumbent on a king of Great Britain. This I know has been denied by a very able writer, (d) who asserts, " that if ^ 0I<1. "James had entered into an immediate war to main-castle's re*' tain the elector "Palatine on the throne of Bohemia, marks*P' "he must have exhausted and ruined this nation to sup- * '* "port it." But I must confess I cannot fee that this would have been the event. The princes of the union were, 'tis true, not so closely connected in temper and interest as might have been wished; France weakly refused to aid the foes of Ferdinand; and the popish party at that time was most powerful: But still a resistances might have been made; and had James had skill and courage enough to have joined in it, it might have been effectual to have withstood the attempts towards bringing on the whole world a blind superstition, and a lawltfc rule.

To talk of ruining and exhausting the British nation, by engaging in this war as a principal, is, in my opinion, unworthy of the penetration and abilities of this writer. Was France ruined and exhausted by'encountering this fame Ferdinand, when his power by success was much more formidable than k now was? did not Richlieu obtain the greatestglory bv advising the assistance of Gujlavus Adolphus; by supporting him with money and troops j by drawing off the confederates of the emperor, P 4 and

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