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his favourites, James was kind in all things / condescending to what [4 A] was below his

dignity

[4 A ] To his favourites 'James was kind in all things; condescending to what was below his dignity, in order to please or serve them.] I have already taken notice of "James's favour to Lennox and Arran when in Scotland, (tf)Note to Ker and others after his coming into England;

[c] (b) and now I friust inform my reader, that he promoted

ri d" George Villiers from the rank of a meer private gentle[www] man, on the account of his beauty, to the degree of a knight, and gentleman of the bed-chamber; master of the horse; baron, viscount, earl, marquis, and duke of Buckingham, and admiral of England, within (c) See tne space of a veryfew years, (e) This man, who seems Cambden's to have had no great capacity, and less knowledge, ruled annalsof K. cverv thing; he advanced his relations to some of the *hecom- highest honors, and greatly enriched himself; for at the pleat history, t me of his death he was possesied of near 4OCO pounds a year, and had 300,000 pounds in jewels, tho'he owed (^SeeTin- 60,coo pounds, (d) 1 do not think this account of bis dal's notes , jewels, beyond the truth. " For it was common with him v Til1"' "at an ort^nary dancing to have his cloaths trimmed . . p. (i witjj great diamond buttons, and to have diamond *! hat-bands, cockades and earrings; to be yoked with "great and manifold ropes and knots of pearl; in short "to be manacled, fettered and imprisoned in jewels ; in"somuch that at his going over to Paris, in 1625, he "had 27 suits of cloaths made, the richest that embroi"dery, lace, silk, velvet, gold and gems could contri"bute ; one of which was a white uncut velvet, set all "over, both suit and cloak, with diamonds, valued at "fourscore thoufand pounds, besides a great feather "stuck all over with diamonds; as were also his sword, "girdle, hat-band and spurs." This account is taken from a M. S. in the Harleyan library, B. H. 90. c. 7. (e) Life of o42- as I sind ]t quoted by Mr. Oldys. (/?) A Raleigh, p. man who in the midst of pleasures could sind money for ,W,ln TMe such monstrous extravagancies, and yet at the fame time 9 grow rich, must have had a very kind and bountiful

master

dignity in order to please or serve them in almost any matters; submitting even to be affronted,

master indeed !—-But 'James was not only kind to his favourites in respect of giving them wealth and honors, but he studied by all possible methods to please and serve them. For Somerset had no sooner determined to marry lord EJJex's wise, than the king yielded him all possible assistance in order to accomplish it. For he got over the bishops of Ely and Coventry, (Andrews and Neal] who had been vehemently against the divorce from Essex, for alleged, and, indeed, consessed impor tency on his part with respect to her. (f) And [/) winwhen the archbishop of Canterbury, (Abbot} could w°"d. Vol. not be prevailed on to change sides that he might please, 'p' *7S* his majesty himself undertook to answer his reasons, and" to shew that there was " warrant in scripture for pro'' nouncing a nullity propter frigiditatem, and that all *' the means which might make him frigidus versus bane * ' must be included therein;" (g) in prosecution o(WT*uth which he made use of many obscene expressions. How-|,-ght t,. ever, he carried the cause. The lady was divorced, and time,p. 101, soon after married Somerset; and then they perpetrated Iranklln» the crime for which they were condemned, and which wei'don I have spoken of in the note preceding.—With regard p. 71. to Buckingham his next favourite, fames was still more A°llcl,Sf0obliging. Jn his speech to his parliament in the year p. ,1a 1620, among other things he tells them, "that he had Lond. 1650, *' abated much in his navies, in the charge of his muni"tion; and had made not choice of an old beaten soldier "for his admiral, but rather chose a young man, [Buck*"ingham] whose honesty and integrity he knew,

"whose

'The referring to Aulieut Coquinariai, gives me an opportunity of pointing out to the public its true author; of which both Wood, Tindal, and Oldyi, as well as Dr. Grey, and all the writers 1 have hitherto seen, seem to be ignorant. The writer of this piece is no other than Will. Saunderfon, author of the history of Jamei l. deservedly treated with contempt, en account of the poorness of its composition, and gross partiality. See Sanderson's proeire to the second part of the history of James 1. folio. Loud. 1656,

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fronted, and insulted by them; and yielding to their desires even sometimes contrary to

his

'"whose care had been to appoint under him sufficient (*) Ruifc- "men, to lessen his charges, which he had done." (h)

worth. Vol. ln anotner speech to the lords, in the year 1621,

and Frank- 'n order to recommend his minion'to their esteem, he lin, p. 49. tells them, " (hat he hath been ready on all occasions "of good ofsices, both for the house in general, and (i) 1d.p. 25.*' every member in particular." (i) And in art answer of his to both houses of parliament, arrnd 1623, he stiles him "his disciple and scholar, and a good scholar (*Md. p. cc 0f his." (k) These expressions found odd enough, 1,7< but they are tolerable when compared with those we

^ find in his preface to his meditation on the lord's prayer.
For in this James tells Buckingham^ that he may claim
an interest in it for divers respects. "First, fays he,
*' from the ground of my writing it; for divers times
"before I meddled with it, 1 told you, and only you,
"of some of my conceptions upon the Lord's prayer,
"and you often solicited me to put pen to paper': next,
"as the person to whom we pray it, is our heavenly
"father, so am I that offer it unto you, not only your
"politike, but also your œconomicke father, and that
*' in a nearer degree than unto others. Thirdly, that'
"you may make good use of it; for since I daily take
"care to better your understanding, to enable you the
"more for my service in worldly affairs, reason would
*' that God's part should not be left out, for timer domi-
"ni is initium Japientiœ. And lastly, I must with joy
"acknowledge, that you deserve this gift of me, in
*' not only giving so good example to the rest of the
*' court, in frequent hearing of the word of God: But
"in special, in so often receiving the facrament, which
*' is a notable demonstration of your charitie in pardon-
s' ing them that offend you, that being the thing I most
•' labour to recommend to the world in this meditation
"of mine: and how godly and virtuous all my advices'
** have ever been unto you, I hope you will faithfully

witneis

his own fense of things.——He pfdsessed

himself

*' witness to the world." (/) How godly and virtuous ffl Kins all his advices were to this his disciple, the reader will iorks/p* easily judge by looking back to what is contained in 573. note [goJ. But had they been such as he would have the world believe, it was very mean in a king to trumpet forth his own, and his favourite's praises. Possibly^ however, James may be excused on account of his agC» as he himself seems to think he should be for uttering trifles. "I grow in years, fays he, and old-men are "twice babes, as the proverb is." (m) But if they are ("0 • t* babes, and pretend to act the part of men, to reason, 57*" dictate and command, tho' they may be born with, they will be laughed at. For there is not a more ridiculous object, than that which is compounded of ig-'

norance,conceit and vanity.- Let us go on with our'

subject. If we may credit Sir Edward Peyton, his majesty condescended even to pimp for Buckingham. "To "please this favourite, (f»ys he) king James gave way "for the duke to entice others to his will. Two ex"amples I will recite: First, the king entertained Sic *' John Crafts, and his daughter, a beautisul lass, at "Newmarket, to set at the table with the king. This "be did then, to procure Buckingham the easier to "vitiate her. Secondly, Mrs. Dorothy Gawdy, being "a rare creature, king James carried Buckingham to 'c Culford to have his will on that beauty: But Sir Ni"cholas Bacon's sons conveyed her out of a window in*' to a private chamber, over the leads, and so difappoint"ed the duke of his wicked purpose. In which clean"ly conveyance the author had- a hand, with the *' knight's Ions." («) These were' the fruits no doubt (nJ'DiviW of James's virtuous and godly advices, and by these c»lastr"Ph<i they were faithsully witnessed to the world by Bucking- p" 7" bam, as we see his master hoped. For certain 'tis he was exceedingly addicted to women, and had debauched his own wise before marriage; and M if his eye "culled out a wanton beauty, he had his setters that P "could

himself to be a protestant, and boasted that

he

"could spread his nets, and point a meeting at some la"dy's house, where he should come as by accident and '' find accesses, while all his train attended at the door,

(') wnson, " as if it were an honourable visit." (o) And in or

P- »49» der to enrich himself and kindred, he was permitted by James to make the most he could of every thing. He who understood neither law nor divinity, who had no appearances of virtue, nor concern about any thing but to gratify his passions; Buckingham, I fay, had the dispofal of the highest posts in the law and in the church, and to him were the most submissive addresses made by tile right reverend fathers in God. Those who would give the greatest sums, or pay the largest yearly pensions to him, were the men generally preserred; and few (^)SteWel- who would pay nothing, had any thing, (p) doD,p. 119. What the power of Buckingham was, and what kind of addresses were made to him, will best appear from the following letter, among many- which might be produced, from Dr. Field, bishop of Landaffe to him, tho' written I think, sometime after James's death.

"My gracious good lord, '' In the great library of men, that I have studied "these many years, your grace is the best book, and "most claffick author, that I have read, in whom I *' find so much goodness, sweetness and nobleness of na"ture, such an heroick spirit, for boundless bounty, "as I never did in any. I could instance in many, "some of whom you have made deans, some bishops, *' some lords, and privy counsellors;- none that ever "looked towards your grace did ever go away empty. "I need go no surther than myself (a gum of the earth) "whom.you raised out of the dust, for raising but a "thought so high as to serve your highness. Since "that, I have not played the truant, but morediligent"ly studied you than ever before: and yet (dunce that *' 1 am) I stand at a stay, and am a non proficient,

"the

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