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was amazingly great, and bordering on impiety.

*' you now to understand: that you may begin early to "hate, what you should always avoid. 1 desire also "that this book may be a witness to posterity, that if "at any time you act otherwise, by the influence of "wicked counsellors, or the wantonness of power "getting the better of education, you may impute it "not to your preceptors, but to yourself that flighted

"their good advice. God grant you a better fate,.

"and (as your favourite Sallust has it) render benefi"cence natural to you by custom. Which I sincerely "wish, and hope with many others."

'James was little more than ten years of age when this was written to him. Two years afterwards Buchanan dedicated his celebrated piece, intitled, De jure Regni apud Scotos, to 'James, in which he tells him, " that he thought good to publish it, that it might be a standing witness of his affection towards him, and admonish him of his duty towards his subjects. Now many things, adds he, persuaded me that this my endeavour should not be in vain: especially your age not yet corrupted by prave opinions, and inclination far above your years for undertaking all heroical and noble attempts, spontaneously making haste thereunto; and not only your promptitude in obeying your instructors and governors, but all such as give you found admonition; and your judgment and diligence in examining affairs, so that no man's authority can have much weight with you, unless it be confirmed by probable reason. I do perceive also that you by a certain natural instinct do so much abhor flattery, which is the nurse of tyranny, and a most grievous plague of a kingdom ; so as you do hate the court solecisms and barbarisms, no less than those that seem to censure all elegancy, do love and affect such things, and every where in discourse spread abroad, as the fauce thereof those titles of majesty, highness, and many other unfavoury compellations.

"Now piety. Nor could he with any patience bear .


"Now albeit your good natural disposition, and sound '' instructions, wherein you have been principled, may "at present draw you away from falling into this error, *' yet I am forced to be something jealous of you,, lest *' bad company, the fawning foster-mother of all vices, *' draw aside your soft and tender mind into the worst "part i especially seeing I am not ignorant, how easily *' ourother senses yield to seduction. This book there'' fore I have sent unto you, to be not only your moni*■ tor, but also an importunate and bold exactor which, "in this your flexible and tender years, may conduct *e you in fasety from the rocks of flattery, and not only ^' may admonish you, but also keep you in the way you *' are once entered into: and if at any time you deviate,' *' it may reprehend and draw you back, the which if "you obey, you shall for yourself and for all your subM jects, acquire tranquillity and peace in this lise, and '' eternal glory in the lise to come. Farewel, from *' Sterveling, Jan. 10, 1579." (a) (a)Dedl.

I have been forced to give this in the words of a trans- "don of

]* r c r 1 Buchanan

ation, for want or an opportunity of turning to thede:ure .

original; which the good-natured reader, I hope, will apud Scotos, pardon. In these dedications we may see the endeavors ln E"?llsll» and hopes of Buchanan^ which I have just mentioned, ,53'v on * of inspiring his pupil with a detestation of tyranny. But his hopes were ill-founded, his endeavours were ineffectual, "james hated the man who counselled him, and spoke a doctrine directly contrary unto that taught by him. (b) What he writ on this subject when in n) $et note Scotland, we have before mentioned, (c) He there in- s»J culcated the doctrine of tyranny, and in England he p 'nnote continued to avow it, and that even before the pailiamerit itself. In his speech to the lords and commons at Whitehall, Anno 1609, we have the following passage: ** Kings are justly called Gods, for that they exercise ?' a manner or resemblance of divine power upon earth: V for if you will consider the attributes of God, you

*' shall

that any should'assert its being liable to be contradicted or controuled. He treated


*' (ball fee how they agree in the person of a king. "God hath power to create or destroy, make or un"make at his pleasure, to give life or .send death, to "judge all, and, to be judged, nor accomptable to none: ** to raise low things, and to make high things low at "his pleasure, and to God are both soul and body due: "and the like power have kings: they make and un"make their subjects ; they have power of raising, and "casting down; of life and of death ; judges over all "their subjects, and in all causes; and yet accomptable "to none but God only. They have power to exalt low "things, and abase high things, and make of their fub"jects like men at chefs; a pawne to take a bishop or "a knight, and to cry up or down any of their subjects, as they do their money. And to the king is *' due both the affection of the sou!, and the service of W Jam. * ' the body of his subjects." (d) And in the.fame speech Jij/' p' are the following words: "I conclude then,this point "touching the power of kings, with this axiom of divi"nity, that as to dispute what God may do, is blas,* phemie ; but quid vult Dens, that divines may lawfully, and do ordinarily dispute and discufle; for to '*' dispute a posse ad esse is both against logicke and divi"nitie: so is it sedition in subjects, to dispute what a (*)H. p. "king may do in the height of his power." (?) These ~"!J'" passages shall suffice to shew James's notions of the regal power; their opposition to those of his preceptor; •and that lord Balingbroke was very much mistaken in faying that" James retailed the scraps of Buchanan." (/) Letters (f) I thought to have concluded this note here,but Isind on the spirt it p, 0per to add that James had.the utmost indignation p. 216. 'against those who held that princes were accountable, or controulable. This appeared from his citing a preacher before him from Oxford, who had asserted that the inferiour majestrate had a lawful power to order and correct his parliaments in many cafes most contemptuously [ttt] both by words and actions;


rect the king if he did amiss; and who for the illustration of his doctrine, had used that speech of Trajan's unto the captain of his guard; Accipe hunc gladium, quem pro me si bene imperavero distringes; -sin minus contra me; i.e. receive this sword, which I would have thee use for my defence if I govern well ; but if I rule the empire ill, to be turned against me. The preacher of this doctrine being strictly examined by the king concerning it, laid the blame on Pareus, who in , his commentary on the Romans, had positively delivered all which he had vented in his sermon, even to that very faying of the emperor Trajan. Whereupon the king, tho' he dismissed the preacher, on account of his youth, and the authority he had produced, gave order to have the book of Pareus burnt in Oxford, London and Cambridge; which was done accordingly, (g) So^jHey. high was James's opinion of regal power, so ill could he lifeof bear opposition to itr tho' in a foreigner, and one with ^*u?>?* whom he had nothing to do!

[ttt] He treated his parliaments in many cafes most contemptuously] Here follow my proofs. In his speech to the parliament in 1605, speaking of the house of commons, he tells them, that " that was not a place "for every rash and hair-brained fellow to propose new "laws of his own invention." That " they should be "warie not to propose any bitter or seditious laws, "which could produce nothing but grudges and dis"contents between the prince and his people ; and that "it was no place for particular men to utter their pri"vate conceits, nor for fatisfaction of their curiosities, "and least of all to make shew of their eloquence, by "ty'ning the time with long studied and eloquent ora"tions." (a) And he adds just afterwards, " that (*) K. jam. "men should be ashamed to make shew of the quickness wotk,, p. ** of their wus Iwre, either in taunting, scofsing, or 5o6' S°7.


giving himself extraordinary airs of wisdom


"detracting the prince or state in any point, or yet in "breaking jests upon their fellows, for which the or*' dinaries or ale-houses are sitter places, than this ho"nourable and high court of parliament."

In his speech to the parliament at Whitehall, in the year 1609, he" wishes the commons to avoid three "things in matters of grievances.

"First, fays he, that you do not meddle with the "main points of government; that is my craft: trac"tent fabrilia fabri; to meddle with that were to *' lesson me : I am now an old king; for six and thirty *' years have I governed in Scotland personally, and now "have I accomplished my apprenticeship of seven years "here; and seven years is a great time for a king's *' experience in government. Therefore there would "be too many Phormios to, teach Hannibal: I must; "not be taught my office.

"Secondly, I would not have you meddle with such "antient rights of mine, as I have received from my "predecessors, possessing them, more majorum: such "things I would be forrie should be accounted for "grievances.

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And lastly, I pray you to beware to exhibit for grievance, any thing that is established by a settled "law, and whereunto (as you have already had a proof) you know I will never give a plausible answer: for it is an undutiful part in subjects to press their king, wherein they know before-hand he will (J) K. Jam;" refuse them." (b)

works, p. Had James stopped here he might have been excused.

See Hey- Elizabeth had set him an example of directing the comwood mons to be cautious in making use of their liberty of hendVhis ^ec^ , anc* complained not of it. (c) But he

torical coll went farther. For in the year 1621, the commons havIcctiom, p. ing drawn up a petition and remonstrance to the king, so) Lc^463'concern'ng tne danger of the protestant religion at home 168o. ' and abroad, and advised him to aid the protestants in


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