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fanta, we shall perhaps be fully satissied of the weakness of his conduct.
entertaining the negotiations, but to amuse J.ames and hinder him from concerning himself in the business of Cleves, or effectually succouring the Palatinate. This appears plainly from the king of Spain's letter to Conde Olivares, dated Nov. 5, 1622. (c) However, it seemsM^"^ probable, that afterwards the Spaniards intentions were j, p, sincere for the match, and that a short space of time would have compleated it. Formatters had been carried to such a length, and 'James had yielded to all their propofals so readily, that they could not well refuse to conclude it. This match was odious to the body of the Englifli nation, and the parliament advised the breaking off the treaty, (d) But James gave them a severe repri- (<0 TU. p.4^ mand for their advice, and determined not to comply with it. He longed for the Spanish gold, (two millions, but of what value appears not) which the Infanta was to bring with her, and was in hopes of getting the restitution of the Palatinate ; and therefore proceeded with zeal and earnestness. .While things were in this
state, the prince persuaded by Buckingham, had an inclinatipn to see and woe his mistress. They opened it to the king, and he, after much opposition, being bullied into it by Steney (e) complied; to the amazement (e) Seelord of the whole world. For it was an unparalleled thing Clarendon, to fee" the only son of a king, the heir of the king- ^^.Jjf" ** dom, hazard himself in such a long voyage, and "carry himself rather as an hostage than a spouse, to a court of contrary maxims of religion and state, hum** bly to supplicate for a wife." (f) What was this but(/)Nam** exposing him to the danger of imprisonment, the soli- b!st'of Ve" citations of Jesuits, the importunities of the Romish cler- ^'honi. gy, and thereby exciting fears and terrors in the minds 167J. ot" the subject, and make them draw the worst conclusions possible? yea, what was this but to put it in the power of the Spaniards, to insist on what terms they thought sit, and cause him to execute them, they having
No wonder then that he was burlesqued, ridiculed, , and exposed abroad, by those
ing the person of the prince thus in ti;<;:r tower? And how weak and imprudent must it be, ru L .kz a step of this nature, without so much as co.r ...nnicating it to the council, and taking their advice on it? VVh.-t was easily to be foreseen, happened. "The cliauge <.n nis "religion (prince Charles's) was much hoped for by "the court of Spain, at this sirst coming-thhher. To "perfect which, he was plied from rime to time with
many persuasive arguments, by many persons of great "honor about the king: and many of the most learned ** priests and jesuits made their addresses to him, with "such rhetorical orations, with such insinuating arti"sices, and subtile practices, as if they had a purpose "rather to conquer him by kindness than by disputa"tion. The pope also addressed his lines unto the
prince, extolling the piety, of his predecessors, their "zeal unto the catholic church, and to the head thereof "the pope, inviting him by all the blandishments of *' art, to put himself upon following of their brave ex"amples. Never a prince had a harder game to play, ** than prince Charles had now. He found himself un"der the power of the king of Spain, and knew that ** the whole business did depend on the pope's dispenfa"tion, with whom if he complied not in some hand"some way, his expectation might be frustrate, and all "the fruits of that long treaty would be suddenly "blasted. He therefore writes unto the pope in such *' general terms, as seemed to give his holiness some "assurances of him: but being reduced into particulars, "signisied nothing else but some civil complements, *' mixt with some promises of his endeavours to make "up the breaches in the church, and restore Christen
"dom to an happy and desirable peace. In Eng
c? land the king had as hard a game to play. For hav
ing left such a pawn in Spain, he was in a manner *• bound to his good behaviour, and of necessity to gra-
who observed his conduct; and that he was spoken of most contemptuously, even
"tify the popish party in this kingdom with more than
"ordinary favour. He knew no marriage could be
"made without the pope's dispenfation, and that the
*' pope's dispenfation could not be obtained, without
"indulging many graces to his catholic subjects. To
*' smooth his way therefore to the point desired, he ad
'' dressed several letters to the pope and cardinals, in
*' which he gives him the title of most holy father; (g) fe)Seeai«t.
"and employs Gage as his agent in the court of Rome,}" J"0Cab**
'* to attend the business. At home he dischargeth all James, to
"such priests and Jesuits as had been formerly imprison- Gregory
"ed; inhibiting all processes, and superseding all pro- th^'ca°s"n
'* ceedings against recufants; and in a word, suspends p. +1I" *
"the execution of such penal laws as were made against
*' The people hereupon began to cry out generally of *' a toleration^ and murmur in all places, as if he were *' resolved to grant it." (h) See here some of the ef- (i) HeyHn'' sects of this weak expedition. The fame prince who "se of Laud, was for proving to the duke of Sully, that it was an of- p" io9»,1,. fence against God, to give the title of holiness to any other than him, now very freely gives it to the pope: (/) and the man who had proclaimed aloud in his wri- (!) See note ting, that the pope was anti-christ, now dignifies him tKKJ •with the title of most holy father. But 'James, I fancy, had forgot to blush, or he could hardly have thus publicly contradicted himself. However, fortune favoured prince Charles in freeing him from the dangers, into , which this absurd and romantic voyage brought him. He got through France, though pursued after; and by the honor and generosity of the Spaniards, was permitted to return fase into England, where, by the instigation of Buckingham, he set himself in an abrupt and ungracious manner to break off the treaty of marriage, and earnestly endeavoured to engage the nation in a war with Spain, in which he was successsul. But 'tis very
byhisbest friends, Maurice prince of Oranges and Henry the Great of France, as
observable," that the reason given for breakingfhe match "was not the true one. The restitution of the Palatl"nate had been very coolly pressed, not to fay neglect*' ed, even whilst the prince was at Madrid; and yet "after he came from thence, the king of Spain had "signed an act by which he engaged for this restitution;. "so that on the principles on which this negotiation had "been conducted, there seemed to have been no reason *' for breaking it off, given by Spain at the time, when fi)OM- *' it was broken." (&)—I will conclude this note by obwarlu ^ervmS, tnat ' ^o not ^member any one writer, who ag".S' P" has thought this journey of prince Charles into Spain, prudent or justifiable, and consequenily fames could not but be blame-worthy for permitting it. For hs ought not to have been overcome by the solicitations of his son, much less by the rudeness and insolence of Buckingham. He should have adhered to what he could not but see to be for the interest of the State, and not have given it up to please son or favourite. But he weakly gave way to them, and thereby exposed those most dear to him to the greatest dangers, and involved himself in such difficulties as exposed him to the ridicule of foreigners, and the contempt and ill-will of his subjects.
[OSS.] ^e was ridiculed abroad, and contemptuously spoken of, by Maurice prince of Orange, and Henry the Great of France.] In Sir Walter Rawleigf/s ghost, written in 162.0, [not 1622, as in the printed copy,] we sind him introduced speaking to Gondomar, a fryar and ajesuir, concerning trie cruel representations that had been made of some of our princes, since the reformation, by the Spaniards in their pictures. And after having spoken of their painting Henry VIII. naked, without a grave, as if a heretic were not worthy to be buried; of the picture of Elizabeth, who was used as
Well as by his subjects, who could not without
bad by them for the fame reason, and because she was their mortal foe; after having spoken of these, he adds, "but to come to his majesty, (king James) what have *' you done by him even of late days? in one place *' you picture him with a scabbard without a sword; "in another, with a sword so fast in his scabbard, that *' no body could draw it. In BruJJ'els you made him "in his hose doublet; his pockets hanging out, and ** never a penny in his purse. In Antwerp you paint** ed the queen of Bohemia like an Irish Glibbin, her *' hair dishevelled, a child at her back, and in a man"tie, with the king (her father) carrying the cradle
*' for her." (a) In the year 1609, was the truce(*) Sir wd*
concluded between Spain and the United Provinces; un- *'w" der the mediation of fames and Henry the fourth ofghoft, in France. During the negotiations great complaints were Morgan's made of the partiality of James towards the Spaniards, J^"?!* B"" by the French ministers to their master; how justly 13I3) Lon<£' shall not determine. But in answer to a letter from one >732. 4<oof his ambassadors, Henry writes, " that he knew TM* WllsolT' ** James's ill intentions towards the States; and withal oidys,' p. "tells him, his carriage did not break his fleep; end- 1"' "ing his letter with this word of contempt, rarely *' used among princes of that rank, I know his capacity "and the inclinations of his subjects." (b) And ' the (^Cornfame Henry, when one called " James a second Solomon, J'** "replied, that he hoped he was not David the sidler's 683, in tie
'* son." (c) Nor had Maurice prince of Orange any notes.
better opinion of him, than the most christian king, as (s)°fl>°TM, will appear from the following curious relation. note [a]"
Sir Ralph Winwood being present in the council of State, where the sincerity of the courts of Madrid and Brussels in the treaty [for the truce] was questioned by the prince, told his highness, that, notwithstanding he thought it the interest of the republic to go on with it, because if the archdukes should at last refuse to comprehend the king of Spain, as well as themselves, an eternal