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same time, did it with impunity, arid he contented himself with remonstrating, when he ought to have required in a proper man*

ner

der fired on the French, and obliged hirh to take down

his flag, (e) 'Tis pity the name of this English captain (') Sul'y'i

has not been handed down to posterity. A have faid memoirs,

in the text that James suffered not only the British flag SJlJ;A to be affronted, but his merchants ships to be taken by *ris siirprU the Dutch, when trading to the ports of Spain dr Flan- 2l?8that ders. In order to understand this, 'tis necessary to ob-^1'^3^' serve, that tho' James had made a peace with the Spa- been overniards, the warwas continued several years after between look1'.<Lb3s them and the Hollanders. Such therefore of the Eng- ri"ns and* lish ships as were found carrying goods to the Spaniards eve* by , and trading with them, were frequently seized under a lurches, »o pretence of their being contraband; when they them-j,istory. selves connived at their own subjects doing the fame; and consequently were guilty of the greatest insults. Here follow some of my authorities. Lord Cranborne _ [Cecyle] in a letter to Mr. Winwoodj dated Oct. 23, 1604,' tells him, " we are credibly informed, that the •' States have not only sent new orders to their men of "war on the coast of Flanders, to impeach our trade '' to the arch-dukes ports by all means possible,'but also "to burn all such, ships as they shall take of foreign "princes. And withal are advertised, that many *' of their own people are daily resorting (under colour "of private licences) to the faid ports with all kind of "victuals and commodities. And that these be no vain *• reports, their daily practice maketh demonstration; *' for on Monday last was seven-night, five of their "ship?» laden with wine and falt, were seen peaceably td *' go into Newport, their men of war riding before the *' harbour; and since likewise, his majesty's admiral *' of the narrow seas, being upon occasion of service *' upon the coast of Flanders, did see two UtiJJihgers put '* into O/fend, in sight of four of their men of war, '* who never offered them violence. Besides, there •* are fifteen small fly-boats and pinks of Holland laden

M "with

ner satisfaction. But notwithstanding this treatment, he delivered up to them the cautionary towns, [nnn] which they had deposited

"with fish, gone this last: spring-tide from Yarmouth •" towards Newport, with private licences as they gave (/) Win- " out from the admiralty there." If) And it appears wood, Vol. from a variety of other letters of the fame secretary to • P- 34- Wm-wood ambassador in Holland, that the Dutch ships never made any scruple of violating the neutrality of our s> ports, and treating even the English after such a manner U) H.177' as produced complaints insinite and unsupportable. (g) But all these things 'James bore with patience. He contented himself with remonstrating, and the Dutch understanding his humour, went on pillaging his subsi) ld.p.ji ject often times their utter undoing, (h) To such a contemptible pass was this nation brought, in a short time, by the cowardice and pusillanimity of its sovereign!

[nnn] He delivered up to them the cautionary towns* &o] In the year 1585, the States of the Netherlands Were so greatly distressed by the Spaniards, that they renewed the applications they had formerly made to Elizabeth, to accept of the government of the United Provinces, and take them into her protection. The queen heard their deputies with favour, but at first refused both their protection and government. But Antwerp being taken by the prince of Parma, she soon . afterwards, by the advice of her council, determined to assist them upon condition, among other things, that Flushing and the castle of Rammekins in fValkerin, and the Isle of Brill, with the city and two forts, should be delivered into the queen's hands, for caution to pay back the money which she should expend on her forces, with which she might assist them during the war. It was moreover stipulated that the faid places, after the money was repaid, should be restored again to the estates, and not delivered to the Spaniards, or any other enemy whatsoever. And also that thegovernor

general,

/

ed in the hands of queen Elizabeth, for the

money

general, and two Englishmen whom the queen should name, should be admitted into the council of the estates. (a) Accordingly Elizabeth sent the earl of Leicester to (*J C*mtheir aid, had the towns put into her.hands, and her go- f^EUiabi vernor had a place among the States-general; whereby in compleat the English had a share in their couricils, and they were Hist.Vol.Hi keptin dependance on them. 'Tis well known with whatpValour and conduct the Dutch resisted the Spaniards and by the help of their auxiliaries, rose themselves to an admired and envied state of power, wealth and liberty. Spain weary with endeavouring to enslave them, • was contented to treat with them as Frte-States, and concluded a truce at Antwerp, March 29, 1609. 'Twas then Holland lifted high it's head, and looking on the cautionary towns as manacles and shackles on themj and fearing that James, whose meanness of spirit, connexion with the Spaniards, and great want of money were known, might one day deliver them into their enemies hands, as by them he had been requested; 'twas then, I fay, that they determined if possible to get them from him, but upon the easiest terms. But this was not to be done in a hurry, they took time, and acted after such a manner, as fully accomplished their purpose. Tho' the towns were garrisoned by the English, the garrison was paid by the Dutch. In order therefore to bring about what they had in views they ceased, all at once, to pay the English garrison, as by treaty they were obliged. Complaints were hereupon made to Sir Noel Caron, the Dutch ambassador at London. He excused it by the poverty of his masters; but withal insinuated as from himself, that if his Britannic majesty would desire it of the States, they, out of their regard for him, would take up money at high interest, and at once discharge the whole debt due to the crown of England. "James listened to the propofal, and wrote about it to the States. By them Barnevelt was sent over, who negotiated so ably, that the king agreed to deliver up the M 2 towns

money she h'ad from time to time expended

on

towns for less than three millions of florins, in lieu of eight millions that were due, and about 18 years interest, (i) See (/>) This was in May 1616. YVhat the opinion of the Rufhwonh, wory was on this affair, will appear from part of a letter Cabala,Pp.3 from Sir Thomas Edmondes, written from Paris the »c6. fame month, to Sir Ralph Wvnwood. In it he observes Acta Regia, t()at {ne agreement for the restoring the cautionary Coke' Vol. towns, was thought strange by the principal persons in I. p. 12. the French council, and particularly by Monf. Vi,Ueroyt Howells n s Qf 0pinion ii tnat no consideration of utility

letters, p. r . . .

16. Lond. "ought to have made his majesty quit so great an in* 1715,8TM. "terest as he'had, for the retaining that people, by "that means, in devotion to him; alledging for ex"ample that they here, without any inch gages, do dis"butse yearly unto the States, the sum of 200,000 "crowns, besides the absolute remittal of twelve or thir"teen millions of livres, which they had disbursed for "them in the last wars, only to draw that people to a *' like dependence on this state, as they do on his ma"jelly. Adding also thereunto, that his majesty having "ordinarily a greater power over the affections of that "people, by the more natural love which they bare un"to him, than they here can promise themselves, but "only in respect of the present great faction, which "they have made by the means of Monf. Barnevelt; it "seemeth, by the course which we have now taken, that "we absolutely quit the advantage tothem. Sir Thomas *' then adds, that those who be his majesty's Zealou9 ** servants, are sorry to fee such a divorce, as they in"terpret it, between his majesty and that people: and "after mentioning the negotiation for a match with. (c) Birch's * ' Spain, he concludes with faying, I am sorry, that our of SirTho.8" necessities (if that be the cause) jhould carry us to these

Edmondes, "extremities." (c) Coke, and Burnet in speaking

p. 396. 0f this affair are guilty of a great mistake. The former Volfl,kp. fuPposes Jt was contrary-to the seventh article of the 53.' peace made with the Spaniards in the year 1604.: (d)

And on her troops in their service, for comparatively a trifling sum; and thereby lost the

dependence

And the other fays, that James, after his coming to the crown of England, had entered into secret treaties with Spain, in order to the forcing the States to a peace; one article of which was, that if they were obstinate, he would deliver these places to the Spaniards. (<?) But in (c) Bamet, fact there is just nothing at all in this. The Spaniards,VoL *• in making the treaty in 1604, insisted on having th.ep* '7' cautionary towns delivered up to them, upon payment of the moneys due from Holland. This was stiffly denied; Whereupon fays secretary Cscyll, in a letter to Mr. fViriwood, dated June 13, 1604, "They are de"scended to content themselves with some modisication, "which we have delivered in form of an article, "(which may be seen in Coke;) wherein, as we do for"bear (at their motion) to express that his majesty "meaneth not to deliver the faid cautiqnanes, to any "other but the states united, so if the modisication be "well examined, you fee it cannot any wife prejudice "either his majesty in honor, or the States in their *c interest in the towns; for as long as the election of "good and reasonable conditions for the States pacisica"tion, is referred to his majesty's judgment, there cari ** arise no inconveniency of it; it being always in his "majesty's hands, to allow or difallow of that, which "shall not be agreeable to the concurrency os his affairs "with the united provinces." (/) Thus speaks lord w;n. Cecyll who had the chief hand in this treaty; and wood. Vol, upon a careful perufal of the article referred to, I amII'P.13. persuaded he is right; and consequently the above-cited historians, as I faid, are greatly mistaken.

The following remark was communicated to me by the reverend Dr. Birch. The account given by Burner, vol. I. p. 15. Rapin, &c. of Barnevelt's coming over to England to negotiate the purchase of the cautionary towns from king James I. in 1616, is absolutely false $ 9s I cannot sind the least trace of it in a series of M. Sf M 3 Jesters,

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