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strongly was this disposition to peace rooted


"thaMhe count Mansfelt, and duke of Brunswick, the "pretended obstacles of the treaty, are now, with ** all their forces removed ; no face of an enemy in the ** Palatinate, but his majesty's power in the garrisons; "all other places repossessed which Mansfelt had taken; "nocause of continuing any war now, nor any cause of "jealousy or fear, for the future, considering his majesty's fair and honourable offers; yet are they so far '* from a cessation, that they are fallen upon Heidel"bergb, and either want the will or power to remove ** the siege. And all I can get, is two letters of in"treaty from her highness to the chiefs of the emperor, "to proceed no further; and after some eighteen days *' since, I made my proposition for the cessation, I have "yet no answer; so that being able to raise no more v "doubts, they make use of delays. I have faid, and *' done, and used all diligencies within my power to ** bring forth better effects, and can go no further ; and "therefore, I humbly beseech your lordship that 1 may "have leave to return, when I shall hear that they will ** not remove the siege at Heldelbergb. For their pre*' tending to restore all, when all is taken, is a poor "comfort to me, and as little honour to his majesty: i "and how far they are to be believed in that, is to be

"examined, more exactly than by writing, by weigh"ing, how the weak hopes given me here, agree with "the strong assurances given by my lord Digby out of

fo) Cabala, ** Spain." (q)' Thus was James treated, as he

p. 402. himself fays, with scorn and dishonour ; but yet he made no efforts to avenge himself or his family, till the breaking off the match with Spain, when twelve regiments were rose, and put under the command of the gallant Mansfield: but these, by an unaccountable weakness or neglect, having had no passage stipulated for them through Prance or Holland, through famine and pestilence mouldered away, and of recovering the

(r)Ru(h- Palatinate came to nothing (r) 'Thus did James

worth, Vol. suffer his son-in-law, his daughter, and his grandchili*p* '54. dren to be driven out from their dominions, without affording, within him, that though he met with scorn, and derision from those with whom he treated about the Restitution of the Palatinate, and found himself deceived by the emperor, Spaniards, and arch-dukes, he still went on


fording them that relief, and assistance which were necessary. Strange conduct! unheard of behaviour! but "James dreaded war, and would submit to any thing rather than engage in it. For even the breaking off the Spanish match, and the raising the regiments under the command of Mansfield, were things greatly displeasing to him, #nd brought about contrary- to his inclinations by his Son, and his great favourite Buckingham (s). And, then he was outwitted (j)SetClj. by the Spaniards, who made him believe that notwith- v"l.°i.'. standing Frederick was overcome, and his affairs in a p. 24. very desperate condition, yet he need but signify his pleasure about his restitution, and he should be obeyed, (r) Nor did James in, the least suspect, but that upon (0R«ihthe conclusion of the marriage os his son with the Infanta worth, of Spain, the restitution of the Palatinate would follow, though he had made no terms in that treaty about it. («) (*)id. p 9j. "The count de Gondomor, the Spanish ambassador, "who had an absolute ascendant over him, gave him to "understand, that the king of Spain being on the point "of giving his daughter to the prince of Wales" (which, by the way, he never intended, though his successor probably was sincere in the treaty for the match) "would look on the interest of the Palatine prince as "his own, and not suffer him to lose the Palatinate, "that even though the emperor should be master of that *' country, there was a good way for both sides to come *' off with honor; for, by favour of the marriage, the "emperor might make a present of the Palatinate to "the Infanta, who would give it the prince her hus»' band, and then the prince might restore it to his "brother-in-law. James took all this to be gospel, as ** if indeed he had had a positive promise from the em- ,


to treat with them, and thereby rendered the' affairs of the unfortunate Frederick his sonin-law desperate and deplorable.

Nor was his conduct better in other affairs. He tamely suffered the British flag [mmm] to be affronted, and his merchants ships to be


*' peror and the king of Spain, that every thing should "be done as the ambassador had proposed. This was "the reason he was more and more intoxicated with '* the notion that the best way to fave the Palatinate* *' was to live in a good understanding with the court of (*) Wel- *e Vienna, and Madrid." (*) In short, such was the jTM?rss me" management of Gondomor in this affair, and such the *8. '' weakness of James, that in a letter to the duke of Lerma, we sind the ambassador boasting, " that he "had lulled king James so fast asleep, that he hoped "neither the cries of his daughter nor her children, not "the repeated solicitations of his parliament and subjects in their behalf should be able to awaken fj) Acta "him." (j)

Regia, p. j fhaU onIy add that the Palatine family remained in ^*9* exile till the year 1648, when, by the treaty of Munster^ they were restored to the best part of their dominions, without having received any considerable helps from the royal house to which they were so nearly allied, during all their misfortunes.

[mmm] He tamely suffered the British flag to be affronted, &c.] Let us hear IVe'.don. "The earl of "Hertford, who was sent ambassador to the arch-duke* *' was conveved over in one of the king's ships, by Sir "William Monfin. In whose passage a Dutch man of "war coming by that ship, would not vaile, as the *-* manner was, acknowledging by that our sovereignty *' over the sea. Sir William Monson gave him a dot to *' instruct him in manners; but instead of learning, he * ** taught him by returning another, he acknowledged

"no *

taken by the Dutch, when trading to the ports


*' no such sovereignty. This was the very sirst indig"nity and affront ever offered to the royal ships of "England, which since have, been most frequent. Sir "William Monson desired my lord of Hertford to go ** into the hold, and he would instruct him by stripes *f that refu/ed to be taught by fair means: but the earl "charged him on his allegiance sirst to land him, on ** whom he was appointed to attend. So to his great *( regret, he was forced to endure that indignity; for ** which I have often heard him wish he had been hang*' ed, rather than live that unfortunate commander of '* a king's ship, to be chronicled for the sirst that ever "endured that affront, although it was not in his power "to have helped it." (a) But, fays an admirable (") ^elwriter, speaking of this affair, "two things are cer- „°nk|ncB°urt *' tain; one that queen Elizabeth would have severely jawi,;^

punished her ossicer, and have exacted ample repa"ration from the states-general; the other, that king "'James did neither. This commonwealth had been "raised by queen Elizabeth, and was still in want of "the support of England. The sovereignty of her state ** had not been yet acknowledged by any of the powers "of Europe. How much the pacific temper of 'James *' was capable of bearing, had not yet become so ap"parent as he made it in the course of his reign. "From all which it is easy to collect that if he had de"manded fatisfaction, he must and would have receiv"ed it. But the good prince was afraid, where no fear "was, and bore dishonourably what he might have * * resented fafely; nay, what he ought to have resent*' ed in any circumstances, and at any hazard. We *' are not to wonder if so poor a conduct as, this, soon ** brought king James into contempt, mingled with "indignation, amongst a people eagerly bent on coni"merce, and in whom high notions of honour and a^oid. *' gallant spirit had been infused, by the example ofcaitle'a re* *' queen Elizabeth, and encouraged during the wnoleh;st*so^ *' course of a long reign." (J>)


Tho' p. 240.

of Spain or Flanders, though their own, at the


Tho' what I have related from Weldon is probably true, yet 'tis but justice due to the reader to inform him, that Sir William Monson himself, in his naval trafls, fays nothing of striking or not striking the flag; but consesses that an affront was offered by two Dutch men of war. He adds, that he sent for the captains aboard his ship; that he threatned to right himself upon them; but that he dismissed them at the entreaty of my lord Hertford, on their excusing themselves, and promising to punish the offenders. How severely these offenders were punished, may be collected from hence. One of these captains, fays Sir William Monson, was he, who since that time committed a foul murder upon his majesty's {c)OU- subjects in Ireland, that were under protection." (c)—. tasiie'sre. But for the honor of the English nation let it beobsermarlcs, p. ve(^ tnat t;|l tne disposition of James was known by his .note. subjects, the commanders of our ships acted very dif

serently. For on his accession to the throne, " the *' duke of Sully being chosen by Henry the Great of *' France, for an extraordinary embassy into England, "embarked at Calais in a French ship, with the French *' flag on the main top-mast; but no sooner was he in *' the channel, than meeting with a yatch which came c' to receive him, the commander of it commanded the "French ship to strike. The duke thinking his qua"lity would secure him from such an affront, resused it "boldly; but his resufal being answered with three can"non, shot with bullets, which piercing his ship, pierced "the heart of the French, force constrained him to do, "what reason ought to have secured him from, and *' whatever complaints he could make, he could get U) Card!- *' no otner reason from the English captain, than that as nai Rich- "his duty obliged him tohonor his quality ofambassador, Jieu's poll- * ' it obliged him also to compel others to pay that respect and testa- "t0 n'S master's flag, which was due to the sovereign of ment, part "the sea." (d) Thus speaks the famous cardinal ad. p.8i. Richlieu; and Sully himself, though he tells the story i«9s!'0n ' somewhat differently, owns that the English commander

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