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them to lose their territories, and be exiles in

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"in a manner gotten by prescription." (c) Rut they (c) id.p. had no reason for this their fear, for James so far from thinking to wrest the empire out of the Austrians hands, did not so much as seriously resolve to support his own daughter, and her children, in their posTefllons.—I need not enter into a detail of the reasons whteh induced the Bohemians to shake off the Austrian yoke, and assert their own just privileges by electing Frederick for their king, Aug. 28,1619. Our historians will fatisfy the curiosity of such as want information in this matter. Let it sufsice to fay, that after the elector of Saxony, and the duke of Savoy, had refused the kingdom of Bohemia, Frederick accepted of it, without waiting the advice of James, his father-in-law, which, by his ambassador, he had asked. (y)Rufli(d) In consequence of this he was crowned king of Bo-" hernia, and at sirst met with great success. For Silesia, 'p' *' Moravia, Lusatia, and Austria had taken up arms against the emperor Ferdinand; as did likewise Bethlem Gaior, a prince of great credit at the Ottoman porte, valiant, courageous, and already master of the greatest part of Hungary.—But his success did not last long. On Npvember 8, 1620, was the battle of Prague fought, which proved fatal to Frederick, and his brave Bohemians. His army was scattered and routed; himself and queen obliged to fly with precipitation from that country ; and his people were subjected to all the insults and cruelties of an enraged conqueror, and a bigotted prince; and withal he was censured for having engaged in an affair, without probability of success, the consequence of which was like to be fatal to him. But this censure seems to have been ill founded. Things turned out very different from what might have been reasonably expected, and therefore though the elector Palatine was unfortunate, he was not to be deemed unwise.

"For who could have believed that the protestants of *' Germany would have abandoned him, they who *' under the name of correspondents had engaged from "the year 1609, to maintain liberty and the protestant L 4 "religion

a foreign land, to the great amazement of



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religion in the empire? They who believed that the "emperor was an enemy to both? They, in short, '' who having been consulted by Frederick, their chief, *' in the assembly held at Rottenburgh, Septem. 12, "1619, answered that he ought to accept the crown of "Bohemia, not only as being a new dignity, but also "as what was necessary for the public good of Germany, "and that of their .allies, and advised him to set out "immediately for Bohemia? Who could have believed '* that France, which in those times exclaimed so loud"ly against princes that are too powersul, and solicited "all Europe to make leagues against the house of Austria, "would neglect Ib favourable an opportunity of weaken♦' ing it? who would have believed that France would "side with Ferdinand, against those who aimed at de'* priving him of a part of his power? who could have *' Relieved that Bethlem Gabor, after such fortunate be"ginnings, after all the refutation he had acquired, "and all the interest he had with the Turk, would be *' of no service to the Palatine? Let us therefore fay, "that Frederick was deceived by a train of events so "singular, that the most resined prudence could never "have suspected it. Let us not believe those who pre"tend that the vanity of the duke of Bovillon, his un"cle, joined with that of the electrefs, threw him into "an imprudent undertaking. They fay, that the duke "wrote to his friends at Pat is, that while the king of "France was making knights at Fountainbleau, he was "making kings in Germany. He might have faid so; "but as he was one of the ablest men of his age, it is historicalS "not probable that he would have advised his nephew to discourse on " accept a crown, if he ought in prudence to have retneiiseof <.<. sufej it.rey jjut lej US return to our history.——

Adolph" ^*>To sooner had Frederick lost the battle of Prague, and attheend with it the kingdom of Bohemia, but almost all his allies ot the last forsook him. He now found himself proscribed by the his dictio- errlperor, attacked by the Spaniards in his own country n'7,p. 678. (he Palatinates and had a( length the misfortune' to


strangers, and theories of his own subjects;


become an exile in Holland, deprived of his patrimony, together with his regal and electoral dignities; and reduced to great necessities, from which it never was his fortune to get free. In his fate his wife and children were involved, and consequently he was an object of great compassion. Let us now fee how his father-inlaw behaved towards him in these circumstances. No sooner had Frederick accepted the crown of Bohemia, but he shewed his dislike of it, and would never suffer the title of king to be given him in his presence, (f) Yea, (/) Ruflihe ordered his ambassador, Sir Henry Wotton to make it TMorth> Vol, known " to all princes, whom it might any way con

cern, that in the election of his son-in-law to the "crown of Bohemia, he had no part by any precedent "counsel or practice."^) And in pursuance of his Reiiqua instructions, the faid Sir Henry Wotton assured the em- Wottonianæ peror, " that his majesty had not given the title of king P-496. "to his son-in-law, or of queen to his daughter, in any "letter either public or private; nor had permitted the "fame title, in any sermons within his kingdom." [h) (*)H.ja Indeed he declared, that " though he was resolved to 5°J*

suspend his judgment about the differences between *' the emperor and the Bohemians, yet he found himself "tied both by nature and by reason, not to leave the *' patrimonial inheritance of his own descendants, that . *c is, neither the inferior, nor superior Palatinate in *'the hands of any alien usurper." (/) Accordingly (;) u.p. when Spinola was about to march into the Palatinate 5,6. with thirty thoufand men, he sent one regiment thither under the command of Sir Horatio Fere, for its defence, who performed good service, (k) But even this he (*) Ruslimeanly apologized for to the emperor, and declared that *orth'' Vo1* "the troops sent towards the Palatinate, were meerly 'P' **" "voluntaries, without his majesties contribution, and "defensively intended, before any noise of the inva-'

"sion." (/) After Frederick's misfortune before (/) Reliquse

Prague, and when his own territories began to be Wottonian» seised, James sent the princes of the union thirty P* 5l8*


who most readily and wittingly would have


thoufand pound to keep them in arms, but withal reCm) Ruth- solved at the fame time to treat of peace, (m) In short, j^ll, tho'an order of council was made for raising money by way of free gift, for the support of the Palatinate, and afterwards the parliament gave a supply for the recovery of it; and the people were disposed zealously to engage in its behalf; yet James contented himself with sending embassies to recover it when it was attacked on all sides; and weakly imagined that princes flushed with victory, Would hearken to his intreaties, or persuasions. Doncaster, Wotton, Digby, Weston and others were sent from time to time, who though men of sense, and able negotiators, could prevail nothing: the Palatinate was taken while they were treating, and they had the mortification of sinding themselves laughed at, and contemned, as well as their master who sent 'them. That I

have not exaggerated matters will appear from the following extracts from James's own letters. In a letter to the earl of Bristol, dated October 3, 1622, he writes thus: "There is none knows better than yourself how *' we.have laboured, ever since the beginning of these *' unfortunate troubles of the empire, notwithstanding *' all opposition to the contrary, to merit well of our *c dear brother the king of Spain, and the whole house "of Austria, by a long and lingering patience, grounded still upon his friendship, and promises that care *' should be had of our honor, and of our children, pa"trimony, and inheritance. We have acquainted you "also, from time to time, since the beginning of the ** treaty of Bruxels, how crossly things there have pro«' ceeded, notwithstanding the fair professions made unto us, both by the king of Spain, the Infanta, and *' all his ministers, and the letters written by him unto "the emperor, and them effectually, (at the least, as ** they endeavoured to make us believe.) But what "fruits have we of these, other than dishonor and "scorn? whilst we are treating, the town and castle of <* Heidclbergh taken by fojce1, our garrison put to the

** sword,, assisted them with all their power. Yea so


sword, Manheim besieged, and all the hostility used <' that is within the power of an enemy." («) And in (") Cabala, a letter to the emperor Ferdinand, dated November I 2,p'15ft" 1621, he complains " that whilst treaty was in hand, <* his son-in-law was wholly despoiled and robbed of his <e hereditary patrimony that remained unto him, ex*' cepting the lower Palatinate, which was all, fays he, , *' by commandment of your imperial majesty, taken <' and possessed by the duke of Bavaria, according as t' himself confessed, with strong hand and force of arms, *' and that for such reasons as are meerly new, and such tc as the like were never hitherto once heard of." He further represents unto him, " that notwithstanding it <* plainly appeared, by the answer given to his ambassa*' dor, that his Imperial majesty had caused the suspension *' of the bann or proscription in those countries, yet he "permitted the taking of arms again in hand, whereby "there had been raised a most cruel war, and most ** part of the country taken in by the Spaniards powers' ful strength." (a) And as James complained, so did(,)id.p; his ambassadors likewise; "whilst things (fays Sira6<>* *' Dudley Carleton to the duke 0/ Buckingham, in a let*' ter dated Dec. 13, 1623,) have been held sometimes f i in terms, always in talk of accommodation, the elec"taral is given to Bavaria by the emperor, and avdwed ** by a congratulatory embassage from Bruxeh: theup"per Palatinate is settled in his possession, with some *' portion to Newburg, for his contentation and engage<* ment. A principal part of the lower Palatinate is, V given to the elector of Mentz, with the consent of

those of Bruxeh, where he (was lately in person to M obtain it) though they grossly dissemble it, and pro

mises of parts of the rest are made toother princes." (p) (p) Cabala, And Sir Richard Wejlon, in a letter from Bruxeh to *9** Buckingham, dated Sept. 3, 1622, has the following expressions. '< Notwithstanding his majesty hath fol*' lowed them in all their desires, and the prince elects r,or bath conformed himself to what was demanded j

% . that

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