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notwithstanding, the articles of the peace were but poorly observed by them, [kkk] and produced not the effect expected in point

of

to those who bribe them, and unfaithful to their master by whom they are intrusted. So that 'tis amazing that "James should consent to his grandees receiving the Spanijh presents; for a moment's reflection would have set before him the pernicious consequences of it. The prince who would preserve his reputation, and accomplish his ends, should keep his councils secret. He should have a strict eye on the ambasfadors sent to him, that they gain not the weak by their address, the proud by their fawning, or the interested by their bounty. For nothing is more certain than that by flattery, cunning and seduction, they endeavour to delude ministers into a discovery of the secrets of state. In short, as a great writer expresses it, " they do all the mischief they ** can j their profeslion allows them to transgress; they ** sin out of duty, and are sure of impunity: 'tis against "the wiks of those spies that princes ought to be chiefly (e) Anti- "on their guard (c)."

Machiavd,

*ji6. [kkk] The articles of the peace were but poorly observed by them, &c. J My authorities for this will not be , disputed. Sir Henry Neville, in a letter to Mr. Winweed, dated London, December 8, 1604, writes, "It "is commonly reported that our merchants are ill-used "in Spain by the inquisition ; and besides that, that the "trade proves nothing so beneficial as was expected j "partly by reason that the merchants there are become "poor by these wars, and not able to buy but upon days, M and many of those that have been trusted, have played bankrupts, insomuch as some of ours have brought "back their commodities, rather than they would fell . *' upon credit; and partly, by reason, that in this time "of long restraint of trade, they have been forced to "betake themselves to the making of cloth there, and "do make it now in that quantity, as they care not

"much

of profit, by the English, to whom the peace soon became very disagreeable, by reason of

the

** much For ours, which was wont to he our chieseÆ "trade thither. And as for corn, the French, both by *' reason of their nearness and abundance, will ever Fur*' nish them better cheap than we can. So as there apk' pears little hope of any fruit of our peace in that re'* gard; which joined with some other considerations *' oF states that have reFerehce to your affairs there* kt [Holland] begins td cool that ardent affection which tc carried us so strongly to that treaty, and begets Fome *' discourses, (even amortgst oiir greatest governors) *' that this will be But a short peace." (a) (a) w\'ri

And Sir Charles Cornwallis in a letter to the earl of^001*'^ fcaVJbury, dated Valludolid, October 18; 1605. O; S.lndC»iaU; tells him, " the Spaniards had made a general stay oFp. 19$. "justice to all dr any df the king his masters subjects." \V) And the Fame gentleman, in a ietter written From (i) winMadrid, in May j6o6, tells lord Salisbury also, "that ^dod'JVoI.; "'tis written to him From Sevill, that Don Lewis Firar- 'P' 43" *' do, in his voyage^ met with certain ships from Eng"land, loaden with corn and bound to Sevill; That he "first took the masters, and first set their necks in the c' stocks; after removed them to the Admirals ana "there with his owri hands did As muchtd their leggs j *' revileing them, and calling them heretiques, Luttieu ran dog', and enemies of Christ, threatningto hang *' them; and in conclusion having taken from thenl u what he thought sit, returned them into their owri c' (hips. Besides the cruelty he (hewed to those of Mr; "Edward's (hip in the Indies, he holdeth still in the u gallies all the marrirters of Mr. stall's and Mr. El•• drift (hips, also those of Mr. Bromley:' [t) The^y**^ letters oF Sir Charles are Full of the wrongs the English l0'*'2b",y* received, and the endeavours he used in order to'get fa-p. 201^ tisfaction, tho' many times in vain. When he complained to the duke of Lerma, prime minister of Spain, of the behaviour of Firardo with regard to confiscating L * the

the ill treatment they received. But James's

pacific

the merchants effects, and sending the mariners whom he took in the Indies to the gallies j Lerma very sharply answered, " that Firardo (hall be called to account for (^)WLn- "that he did not instantly execute them." (d) In wood, Vol. sho,.^ such was tne ill-treatment the subjects of the British Crown received from the Spaniards, that Sir Henry Nevile, in a letter to Mr. Winvoood, dated June 4, 1606, write?, "that upon Sunday last divers mer"chants and merchants wives were at the court, and "made grievous complaint unto the king, the one of *' their servants, and the other of their husbands, im»' prisoned and put to the gallies in Spain, and of much. "injustice and oppression done there to our nation; be*: fides some particular contumely to theking personally; "the like complaint was made before to the lords. I "hear it hath moved much, and this I will assure you, "that the kingdom generally wishes this peace broken, "hut Jacobus Pacicfius I believe will scarce incline to .. "that side." (e) At length the patience of the mer

a',7i chants began to fail. They faw no relief from James,

and therefore applied to the house of commons, to be a
means for them to obtain letters of mart. The com-
mons received favourably their address, and desired the
assistance of the upper house. But this was resused.
Tho' this gave occasion, fays lord Salijbury, in a letter
to Sir Charles Cornwallis, dated July 15, 1607, " to
"the lords of the council yesterday, to call the mer-
"chants before them, and to acquaint them with the
"substance of these answers sent from Spain; and to
"advise them (if they find such a general ill ufage in
"Spain as they complain of) to be more moderate in .
*' their trade thither, and to withdraw their stock and
"factors from thence, that so his majesty might grant
*' them letters of reprisal, without prejudice to others
"that have large stocks there. Otherwise it would
*' prove a most preposterous course, to grant letters of
"Marte, where the k'mg of Spayne hath so great occa-
"ston to revenge himself upon, and we scarse a ship or

"mao

pacific disposition continued> nOr could the

distresses

"man to requite him in it." (f) But letters of Martif)w!nand reprisal were never granted; tho' the Spaniards con- "|°°'' ^ tinued to treat the Englijh extreamly ill, even when they pretended great friendship. For Sir Walter Raleigh speaks of it as a known fact, in a letter to king James himself, "that the Spaniards murtheredtwenty-six Eng"lishmen, tying them back to back, and then cutting '' their throats, when they had traded with them a whole "month, and came to them on the land, without so "much as one sword." (g)—Surely the Spaniards mustCc) Raleigh't have had a very great reliance on the pacific disposition of J"ior1"',V6° * "James, to act after this manner, in their circumstances! and most amazing is it, that the national spirit had not . . exerted itself, in its own desence, more than it did.— Before I leave this subject, I cannot help remarking that almost all our treaties with Spain, fcem to have been but badly observed by her. This first arose from the negligence of James, in making the peace. He contented himself with concluding a treaty of amity, and mutual trade to each others dominions; but trade and commerce being denied to the east and west Indies, and the Spaniards looking on all America as their own, it came to pass that they seized all vessels they found in those seas, though going only to those colonies which were indisputably discovered by the Englijh. So that there was a continual war there, when there was peace in Europe. In 1668, and 167 r, treaties Were again' made with that nation, whereby the right of commerce and navigation, and the bounds of the several territories possessed by the two crowns in America, were fixed. But these treaties were but ill observed likewise; and a)seethe great complaints were made by the English, of the hard- teprescntafhips they suffered from the Spaniards, (b) In 1713, a new tionofthe treaty was made at Utrecht. But this was observed tr°ad'e o R; like the others. Complaints soon followed it; as they George l. in did that made at Seville, in 1729. The representation Torbock'i df our merchants with regard to their ill-treatment by ^"dTM'"** the Spanish guarda coftas; the imprisonment of our Vol. ix.' L 3 brave P'414

distresses of his only daughter, and hcf numerous progeny, excite him to enter into a war[LLLj for their defence: But he suffered;

thern

brave failors to the number of seventy; the cutting off Jenkins's ear, and many other things still fresh in memory brought on the late war, which was ended by the fieace at Aix la Chappelle, the effect of which must be eft to time to dilcover.-—rWhat can be the reason, {hat our treaties with Spain have been thus ineffectual for the maintenance of peace and friendship? Are they jnore false than ethers, or we more incroaching in o/def to obtain those riches they so caresully guard from us I are not the treaties sufficiently plain and explicit? do\ they admit of different senses, and bear divers constructions ? or have we not capacity sufficient to negotiate advantageously with them I—These things must bq determined by those who have opportunities and abilities so? their discussion. For my own part, I must fay

U) vir. E, Non nostrum tantas componere lites. (/')

j. 1.108.' *Tis not in me this contest to decide. Trapp,.

[j-Lt.] Nor could the distresses of his only daughter^

and her numerous progeny, excite him to enter into a

war, &c] This his daughter was Elizabeth, married;

to Frederick the fifth, elector Palatine, Feb. 14, 1613,

(«) win- N. S. to the great joy of all true protestants, (a) The.

wood, Vol. marriage was celebrated with great pomp, and the

. 'p' 4-4- prince gained the love and good-will of the English by

0) 14. ^, his affability and great generosity, (b) The Spanish

i11-' ambassador, and the ambassador from the arch-dukes,

were not present at the marriage, being greatly enraged

at it, " searing indeed thereby, fays Mr. Trumbull to,

"Sir Ralph Wwwood^ that we do aim at wresting the

\l empire out of the Aujlrians: hands, which they fay

V shall never be effected, so long as the conjoined forces

1' of all thecatholiques in Christendom, shall be able to,

\\ rnajntajn them in that rjght, which now they have.

''' *M

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