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of" the Spaniards; who thereby had an op-

*' ciple in philosophy, that omnis diminutio efl preparatio
"ad corruptionem. That the least decay of any part is a
"forerunner as the destruilion of the whole.

"And though it may be a while upheld, as the state "of Rome was by Vespasian and Trajan; yet follow*' ing the former declination, retro statim fub-lapfa fer"tur usque dum plane subverfa suit. It presently fell "back again, and never left declining till the Roman "slate was utterly overthrown.

'* But if now the king of Spain can obtain peace "upon any condition reasonable, so as he may fortify his "weakneis, both in Europe and the Indies^ and gather "again sufficient riches, putting the English from the *' exercise of war in those parts, and so make us to for"get his Indies, till those be consumed that 'know *' them; he will soon grow to his former greatness and *' pride: and then if your majesty shall leave the Low "Countries, and he finds us by ourselves, it will not be "long e'er he remembers his old practices and attempts "(b).":—But no such considerations as these could (i) The have any influence on James. He had revoked the let- *'orws?f ters of reprifal, and a peace he was determined to have. Raleigh,Kt.

You shall now understand (fays lord Cecyll to Mr. political,

Winwood, in a letter dated Ap. 12, 1604.) "that the TMTMTM;£fo.* "constable of Caftile is come to Dunkirk, and resolv- phical, by "ed presently to take his pasfage; so as there is now Tho. Birch, "nothing so certain as a treaty, and in my opinion no- ^?'A'' thing more likely than a peace. For as it is most gvo, Lond. ** true, that his majesty's mind is most inclinable there-1751. *' unto, and that in contemplation thereof, things "have been so carried here, as if a war were now "somewhat unseasonable, so you may see by the king *' of Spain's great descent from the heighth of his *' forms towards other princes, as he is determined to •" go through with it; being now it seems confirmed "in the French position, qui a le profit a Chonneur. A *' matter I do consess to you I do clearly foresee he will 1 •

** have,

portunity given them of retrieving their a!


*e have, unless the estates of those poor countries [the "Netherlands] have some more adjuvances towards

(c)Win- ^ *' their subsisting (c).'' The treaty was soon con

Xl'it- clude^, of friendship and amity, and mutual trade to {d)lid.p.*a. each others dominions (d)., .'Tis very remarkable, that low as the Spaniards were, depending on James* pacisic disposition, they stiffly denied the English free (f)Id.p. 21. trade and commerce with the East and West Indies (e);

and got it inserted in the articles that no aid or assistance whatsoever should be given to the enemies or rebels on either part; yea moreover they had the English {/) Id.p.29. in Spain subjected to the power of the inquisition (/).

Cecyll indeed faid it were vanity to have expected more than they had concerning the matter of trade to the Indies, and the inquisition. But it does not appear that he had reason for his affirmation. For the Spaniards were in so much want of a peace, that they would have submitted to almost any thing to obtain it; and they themselves were surprized to sind that it was made on so advantageous conditions. Sir Charles Cornwallis, in a letter to the fame Cecyll, lord viscount Cranborne, principal secretary to his majesty, from Spain, dated June 2, 1605. has the following remarkable expressions. "I "sind here by many arguments that this peace came "opportunely for this kingdom, and is admired of all *' Europe, yea of this kingdom itself, how it was pos*' sible with so advantageous conditions to them, and so "little prositable to our realm it could be effected. ** The duke of Anera discoursing with one of great "privacie and trust with him, after he had heard that *' the peace was in such forme concluded, faid in plain "termes, that the king and counsellors of England *' had not their senses when in such sort they agreed *' upon it. And some Spaniards have lately reported, "that the king of Spain's money purchased this quiet; *' otherwise peace, with so good conditions could never *' have been obtained, I know that besides your lord


most desperate affairs, and of pushing on the


tc ship's exceeding wisdom, your lordship out of "your true noble disposition, hath ever equalled the "care of the faftie and honor of your countrie with *' your own lise. I verily persuade myself that the "king's own christian and earnest inclination to peace, "lead on the treaty with speedy seet. —But by"those collections that I have made, and relations of "others well practised in this slate, I sind that England "never lost such an opportunity of winning honor and "wealth unto it, as by relinquishing the war with Spain. "The king and kingdom were reduced to such an es"tate, as they could not in all likelihood have endured "the space of two years more ; his own treasurie was *' exhausted, his rents and customssuftgned for the most "part for the payment of money borrowed, his nobi"lity poor and much indebted, his merchants wasted, "his people of the countrie in all extremitie of neces"fity, his devices of gaining by the increase of the "valuation of money, and other such of that nature, '* all plaid over; his credit in borrowing, by means of *' the incertaintie of his estate during the war with *' England much decayed, the subjects of his many "distracted dominions held in obedience by force and "seare, not by love and dutie; and therefore rather a *' care and burthen, than a relief and strength to him. "Himself very young, and in that regard with his "people in no great veneration; and the less for suf*' sering himself to be wholly governed by a man ge*' nerally hated of his own country; his strength at *' sea not able to secure his ports at home, much less "his Indies, or his treasure homewards (g)." This is (;) Winrather a stronger picture of the deplorable state of Spain Jvood' Vo,; than Sir Walter Raleigh's, and from it, it clearly appears 'p" that we needed not have been afraid to have insisted on almost any thing from it; and consequently much less have submitted to a deprivation of the Indian trade and to the inquisition. But James's earnest inclination


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for peace, and the king of Spain's money procured this treatv: for money was distributed in abundance amongthe English courtiers who promoted the peace, as appears not only from what is asserted by Sir Charles Cornwallis in the above letter, but from other unquestionable authorities. In the memoirs of Sul'v we read, "That no sooner was the Spanish ambassador arrived "in London, than he multiplied the number of his "creatures, by his extraordinary liberalities to all those, (i) Solly's '* whom he considered as necesfary to be gained (h)." memorials. And Sir Henry Neville in a letter to Mr. H'inwood, daVol.ll. P. ted Aug. 19, 1604. writes, " We fay the Spanish am"bassadors have taken up many jewels here (we sup"pose to bestow upon our grandees; so not to leave "any advantage to the French, who began that ang"ling fashion unto them) with the king's privity and

(OWIn- *' all men's wonder (i)." And after the peace was

II. p.'26°' ma^eJ tne earl of Nottingham, lord admiral,, ambassador extraordinary into Spain, had bestowed on him at his departure, in plate, jewels and horses, to the value of twenty thoufand pounds, by that king. And to some other of his principal attendants were given chains oodV r anujewe's of great value (/!.). And it appears from Sir II. p 'so.' Charles Cornwatlis's letter to the earl of Salisbury, out ana Birch's of Spain, that there were many pensions given in the (£5°'"; .court of England(/). Ofiom, therefore, seems to have. f/JId. p. 96.reafon for faying, " that "James cast himself as it were "blindfold into a peace with Spain, far more destruc"tive to England than a war; for it hath, not only "found that prince an opportunity to recover his "strength (much abated by the queen's happy successes ,c at sea) but gave him a fair advantage to establish "himself in the kingdom of Portugal, and quiet the "distempers of his own peopfe. And as this peace, "adds he, was of insinite consequence to the Spaniard, "so he spared for no cost to procure it: and to prevent "the inserting any article that might obstruct his re

"course Were, in a manner, implacable, on account • ✓ <pf their revolt for religion and liberty. But


*" course to or from the Indies (the magazine of strife) "either on this side or beyond the line (thought by the "Englijh commissioners not included, however the con* *' trary was after pretended, and no farther disputed by *' King James, than with patience and a quiet submis*' sion of his subjects to their fense, not rarely punish

ingsuch as tranfgrest, at their coming home) he pre*' fented all, both Scotijh and Englijh with gifts, and ** those no small ones; for by that the earl of Northamp

ton, brother to Suffolk, had, he was alone able to "raise and finish the,good)y pile he built in the strand.— "Nor are there a few others no less brave houses fresh "in my memory, that had their foundations, if not *' theirwalls and roofs, plastered with the fame mortar.— *' This I stall add as no improbable conjecture made by "many in those days, that his catholic majesty was so *' frighted by the apprehension of a possibility that our "king, according to the nature, no less than the obli,' gation of his country, might fall into a conjunction "with France, that he would scarce at that time havede"nied him any thing, to the half of his Indies. And from "hence all princes may calculate the vast difference that "lies between a council suborned, and one free "from corruption." (a) This last reflection, appears,^'r^oni"* to me very judicious. "A gift blindeth the wife, and ,p" "perverteth the words of the righteous," fays the great , Hebreio legislator (b). No prince can ever be fafe (6) Exod. who permit? his counsellors to take presents from foreign 23> 8princes, t'or their judgments will be biassed, their affections be engaged, and they be disposed to serve others, more than their own master; so that of the utmost con-' sequence is it to have ministers depend wholly on their prince, if they receive presents from others, they must' earn them ; by giving counsel suitable to the instructions they receive, or by divulging those resolutions which ought most of all to be concealed. They must be spies h to

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