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king David ; and writ a few sonnets and epitaphs.

was first printed in quarto, without name or date. It is a wretched performance boih for matter and manner. In it he Tets forth how dishonourable, 'tls in us to imitate the beastly Indians in so vile and stinking a custom as using tobacco; how unreasonable the pleas alledged in desence of it are; and the mischievous consequences flowing from the use, or filthy abuse of it. .Here he tells us that by using tobacco men are guilty of sinsul and shamesul lust; that 'tis a branch of the sin of drunkenness; that it enervates the body, and ruins the estate; for, adds he, " some gentlemen bestow three, "some four hundred pounds a year upon this precious (<0 King cc stink (a)." If this is true 'tis very amazing. Tho'

Tames s .. -rv 1-1 n 1 i •. i

works p. tis ceftain James laid a molt heavy duty on it, in order

Azi, to hinder its consumption. "For there is extant his

"warrant to the lord treasurer Dorset, anno 1604.

"for laying a good heavy imposition on tobacco, that

"less quantity may be brought into the realm, and

"only' sufficient for the better sort, who will use it

"with moderation for their health; wherefore he au

"thorises the faid treasurer to order, that from the 26th

"of October ensuing, the proper ofsicers should take

"of all who import tobacco, the sum of six shillings

"and eight pence upon every pound weight, over and

"above the custom of two pence per pound usually

(I^Rymer's" paid heretofore (£)." Excellent policy this! to dis

To~"^vi courage the' taking of that which has since proved one

sol 601. .of the greatest revenues of the crown, and has pro

apudOldys'sdi'.ced vast benefit to Britain, and her plantations. For

jrith pR!l two of our colonies are supported by it; great numbers

Note'd. sol. of ships and seamen are employed in bringing it over j

Lond. 1733. and the custom duties of it are counted, on a medium,

"?. */*£' to amount to 169,079 1. os. iod. per annum. But'tis

Foi. Lund, no wonder " that such a philosopher, as could magnify

J734' "the power of witches, after the manner he has done

"in one of his learned pamphlets, should be such a po

"litician as to discourage the taking of tobacco in a'n


taphs (ggg). So fond was he of shewing his parts, instructing and entertaining his


'c other, fays Mr. Oldys (<:)." "But those who, have WOIdys, "not admired, continues the fame gentleman, at hisp* ?*' . "prejudice in this attempt to dispel the sumes of that "herb with greater of his own, if I may allude to the ." witty title of bis performance without imputation of "irreverence to his memory, .may yet applaud his po*' licy, in so far conducing to its suppression, as to ex"elude it from the body of his works when this rpyal "patnpbietetr resolved to become an author in folio." If I understand this paragraph aright, it is asserted in it that the counterblajl to tobacco, makes no part of James's folio volume. But this is^ mistake, and could proceed frpm nothing but trusting, I suppose, too much to memory, in a thing of small importance. A fault, that even the most exact authors are liable to fall into.

(ggg) He began a translation of the pfalms of king David, &c.] In lord Anglesey's catalogue, I find king J'ames's translation of the pfalms to be sung after the old tunes, 1651 (a); and I am assured by a iearned W Bibliafriend, from one who has seen it, that such a tranfla- siana, article tion was published in his name, though I have not yet (divinity, in been so fortunate as to meet with it. But this transla- sma" iv°tion was only begun by James, as we may learn from p ,9,j the following quotation. "This translation he was in J-ond. 1686, "hand with, fays bishop Williams, (when God called 4t0**

"him to sing pfalms with the angels.) he intended .

"to have finished and dedicated it to the only faint of

*< his devotion, the church of Great Britain, and that

"of Ireland. This work was stated in the one and

••'• thirty pfalm." * We have two sonnets of his


* Great Britain's Salomon. A sermon preached at the magnificent funeral of the most high and mighty king James. -By John lord bishop* of Z.inccfnr, lord keeper of the great scale of England. London, printed for John »5i//, printer to the king's most excellent majesty. J6zj. p. 42. 4C0.' r


good subjects, and overcoming his adversaries in literary contests! but he had an absolute aversion to war (hhh). This led him


(i) James's ;n his works (b); an epitaph on the chancellor of Scotworic*,p. janj9 in Spot/wood (c); and another on that valiant, po(f/cb.biS. lite, and learned gentleman, Sir Philip Sydney, in Collier's dictionary. This latter, being but short, I will give to the reader, as a specimen of James's poetry.

When Venus faw the noble Sidney dying,
She thought it her beloved Mars had been;

And with the thought thereof, she fell a crying,
And cast away her rings and carknets clean.

He that in death a goddess mock'd and griev'd, (</) Great What had he done (trow you) if he had lived id).

historical \ J / V I


article Sia- This, I think, is one of the best of his poetical comp?[,(sir positions. The reader, after this, need not be told that p"' "James's talents for poetry were not extraordinary. Besides the pieces of poetry I have mentioned, I am informed by the very worthy and learned Dr. Birch, that there is extant in James's name, another intitled, "His majesty's lepanto, or heroical story, being part w of his poetical exercises at vacant hours, London, '* 1603. in/ito." A sight of this, perhaps, might afford some diversion. This book being burnt among those of the honourable Charles York, Bsq; at Lincoln's Inn in the late sire there, Mr. Birch could give no further account of it.

(hhh) He had an absolute aversion to war.] "I *' know not by what fortune the dicton of Pacificus "was added to my title, at my coming into Lng"land: that of the lyon expressing true fortitude, hav"ing been my dicton before: but i am not ashamed • "of this addition; for king Solomon was a sigure of "Christ in that, that he was a king of peace. The "greatest gift that our Saviour gave his apostles, imme


hastily to conclude a peace with Spain

(in), to

"diately before his ascension, was, that he left his "peace with them; he himself having prayed for his "persecutors, and forgiven his own death, as the pro

"verb is (a)." In the first audience the duke of(a) kins

Sully had of James, he told him, " that if he hadJ»TMes's "found the Englijj h at war with the French, his endea-s°0,' "vours would, nevertheless, have been to live in peace' *' with a prince, \Henry the fourth] who, like himself, "had been called from the crown of Navarre to that "of France: it being always commendable, faid he, "to overcome evil with good (b)." These are good WSulfy*s sentiments enough for private persons; but they may voUllsp be carried much too far by princes. Forgiveness and 25. impunity from these only draw on fresh injuries; and he who will not at any time avenge wrongs received, will be sure to meet with enough of them. Princes .

owe protection to their subjects; but this cannot be afforded many times, unless chastisement be inflicted on those who injure them. Wars therefore are sometimes necessary; and a warlike prince will be always respectable to his neighbours. But the known coward will be looked on with contempt. He will be affronted perpetually, and every opportunity /will be taken to ridicule and oppress him. So that though the love of peace in princes be commendable, yet, when it is carried too far, it degenerates into a fault, and gives just: ground for the subjects complaints. Happy the people who have a prince who neither loves nor sears to draw his sword! They maybe sure of being desended in their just rights by him; of being guarded from unjust invasions, and secured by his valour from the evils which threaten them. His power will make him considerable in the eyes of his neighbours ; they will attend to his reasons, and be influenced by his persuasions. For they will not slightly provoke one known not tamely to put up injuries. So that the prosession of fortitude and resolution, of courage and magnanimity, becomes better a the (ill), to the amazement and great advantage


the mouths of princes, than that of meekness and forgiving of injuries: for the former may, possibly, be of use and service, but the latter can answer no good purpose in the present state of the world.

(m) This led him to conclude a peace with Spain, &c.] The peace was concluded Aug. 18, 1604. But hefore this, in a few weeks after James came into England, he revoked the letters of reprifal on the subjects of Spain, which had been granted by Elizabeth, without-staying to be solicited on that head, or to be complimented on his acceslion to the throne, by the king [a) Old- of Spain (a). So that he difarmed his subjects before castle's re. he had provided for their better security. He stopt them marks on , the course of doing; themselves iustice, before he was

the bist. of, .... o , J . n ,, rr

England, p. sure of obtaining reparation for their past loiies.——, 233.and The king of Spain had now reduced himself to a very actaregia, j0W by his wars with England and the Netherlands, * in which, for the most part, he had been unfuccess

• ful. The king of Spain, fays Sir Walter Raleigh, in

his discourse touching a war with Spain, written before the conclusion of the peace, and intendeds to be presented to James. "The king of Spain, fays he, is now "so poor, as he employed his Jesuits to beg for him at "every church-door in Spain.

"His revenues are mortgaged in such fort, as of "twenty-sive millions, he has but sive millions free; "his ships are worn-out and consumed, and his people *' in general exceeding poor.

"He hath of late received many affronts and losses; *( and in Pertt many of the chiefest and best towns are *f recovered from him, by the natives.

"And commonly, when great monarchies begin "once in the least to decline, their dissipation will soon ** follow after.

** The Spanish empire hath been greatly shaken, and H hath begun of late years to decline; and it is a prin


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