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still decreases beyond it, as in Cochinchina, Tonquin, and China. In India the way of travelling by land is commonly in carts drawn by oxen, and in some parts on elephants, but in China the most common carriage is in palanquins, or chairs on mens' shoulders, who travel swift and cheap.
These particulars may serve in relation to the eastern nations; and as for Europe, the methods of travelling are too well known to require any particular instructions, therefore it only remains to set down some general rules which may concern all travellers to observe. They are in the first place to consider, that they do not go into other countries to pass through them, and divert themselves with the present sight of such curiosities as they meet with, nor to learn the vices of those people, for which they need not take the pains of going abroad, nor to observe their faults, that they may have matter to rail when they come home. If they will make an advantage of their trouble and cost, they must not pass through a country as if they carried an express, but make a reasonable stay at all places where there are antiquities, or any rarities to be observed ; and not think that because others have writ on that subject, there is no more to be said ; for upon comparing their observations with other mens', they will often find a very considerable difference. Let them, therefore, always have a table-book at hand to set down every thing worth remembering, and then at night more methodically transcribe the notes they have taken in the day. The principal heads by which to regulate their observations are these, the climate, government, power, places of strength, cities of note, religion, language, coins, trade, manufactures, wealth, bishoprics, universities, antiquities, libraries, collections of rarities, arts and artists, public structures, roads, bridges, woods, mountains, customs, habits, laws, privileges, strange adventures, surprising accidents, rarities, both natural and artificial, the soil, plants, animals, and whatsoever may be curious, diverting, or profitable. It is not amiss, if it may be, to view all rarities in the company of other strangers, because many together are apt to remark more than one alone can do. Every traveller ought to carry about him several sorts of measures, to take the dimensions of such things as require it; a watch, by which, and the pace he travels, he may give some guess at the distances of places, or rather at the length of the computed leagues, or miles; a prospective glass, or rather a great one and a less, to take views of objects at greater and less distances ; a small sea compass or needle, to observe the situation of places, and a parcel of the best maps to make curious remarks of their exactness, and note down where they are faulty. In fine, a traveller must endeavour to see the courts of princes, to keep the best company, and to converse with the most celebrated men in all arts and sciences. Thus much for travellers; but that every man may have his due, as we owned the instructions for the eastern countries to be those given by Monsieur de Bourges, so we must here confess, that most of these general rules may be found in Monsieur Misson's travels. Having given an account of the advance. ment of navigation, and all discoveries made by help of it, of the countries so discovered, of the advantages the public receives by the relations of travellers, and some directions for them ; it now only remains to subjoin a catalogue and character of books of travels, for the information of such as take delight in this sort of pleasant and profitable reading.
CATALOGUE AND CHARACTER
BOOKS OF VOYAGES AND TRAVELS.
Descriptio Africæ, 8o.
These four by John Leo, a Spaniard by birth, and a Mahometan by education, but afterwards converted, who before his conversion travelled through the greatest part of Afric, and has given the best light into it of any writer, as Johannes Bodinus affirms. He first writ them in the Arabic for his own nation, but afterwards translated them himself into Italian, and John Florianus into Latin. He gives an excellent account of the religion, laws, customs, and manners of the people of Afric, but is too brief in martial affairs and the lives of the African princes.
Epistolæ viginti ser de rebus Japonicis, or twenty-six letters concerning the affairs of Japan, to be seen in several collections of this sort of letters.
Historica relatio de legatione regis Sinensium ad regem Japonum : or an account of the embassy sent by the emperor of China to Taicosoma, king of Japan, An. 1596, and of the strange prodigies that happened before the embassy, Rome, 1599. 8o. VOL. X.
Historica relatio de rebus per Japoniam, An. 1596, à patribus societatis durante persecutione geslis : or an account of the proceedings of the Jesuits in Japan, in the year 1596, during the persecution. These three by F. Lewis Froes, a Jesuit who lived forty-nine years in the East, and thirty-six of them in the island of Japan as a missioner. It is believed these relations were writ in Portuguese by the author, and afterwards translated into Latin,
De Abassinorum rebus, deque Æthiopice patriarchis, Lions, 1615. 8". The author was F. Nicholas Godinho, a Portuguese Jesuit, who divides his work into three books, and in it refutes the fabulous history writ by F. Urreta.
Itinerarium ab oppido Complutensi Toletanæ provinciæ usque ad urbem Romanam. A journal of a journey from the university of Alcala in Spain to Rome, by Dr. James Lopez de Zuniga, à pious and learned man.
Literæ annua. The annual or yearly letters out of Ethiopia, China, India, and other parts, give much light into the affairs of those countries, and are to be found in several volumes, and scattered in collections of travels ; of all which it will be needless to give any account in this place.
dihanasii Kircheri è societate Jesu China, monumentis qua sacris qua profanis, illustrata, fol. This is a complete history of China, and held in great reputation for some years; but of late its reputation has declined, since so many books of that empire have appeared writ by missioners, who have resided there many years, and discovered great mistakes in Kircher.
Jobi Ludolfi historia Æthiopica, fol. This history of Ethiopia is written by a German, who having gathered most of it from the writings of the Jesuits, yet makes it his business to contradict them, from the information given him by an Ethiopian he was acquainted with in Germany, for he was never near Ethiopia himself; and his whole book has more of controversy, and of the Ethiopian language, than of history.
Relatio eorum que circa S. Cæs. Majest. ad magnum Moscorum Czarum ablegatos unno aru christiano 1675. gesta sunt, strictim recensita per Adolphum Lyscck, dictæ legationis secretarium, 8o. Saltzburg, 1676. In this account of an embassy to the Czar of Muscovy, we have an account of his travels through Silesia, Pomerania, Prussia, Lithuania, and Muscovy, to the court of Moscow, and of all things of note the author saw or heard of, being an ingenious person, and having a greater privilege than common travellers, as secretary to the embassy. Giorn. de Letter.
Johannis Schjöri Argentoratensis Lapponiæ, id est regionis Laponum et gentis nova et verissima descriptio, 4o. Lipsiæ 1674. An account of Lapland, which, though it be not by way of travels, well deserves a place here, because we shall scarce find travellers that will go into that frozen region to bring us a just
relation of it. This however is authentic, as gathered from the Swedish writers, who are best acquainted with those parts.
Theodori et Johannis de Brye India orientalis et occidentalis, 6 vols. fol. Francfort, 1624. This collection being three volumes of the East and three of the West-Indies, begins with a particular account of the kingdom of Congo in Afric, as lying in the way to, and having accordingly been discovered before India; this account translated from the Italian writ by Philip Pigasetta. Next follows five voyages of Samuel Bruno of Basil, the three first to Congo, Ethiopia, and other parts round the coast of Afric; the fourth to several parts in the Straits, and the fifth to Portugal and Spain, &c. translated into Latin from the author's original in High Dutch. The next are Linschoten's Indian voyages, translated from the Dutch, and containing a very full account of all things remarkable in those parts. Then three Dutch voyages to the north-east passage, and after them a great number of cuts and maps, besides very many dispersed throughout the book, and a considerable number at the beginning. These are the contents of the first volume. The second begins with a large account of Bantam, Banda, Ternate, and other parts of India, being a voyage of eight Dutch ships into those parts in the year 1598, translated out of High Dutch. After that the description of Guinea, out of High Dutch. Spilberg's voyage, An. 1601. Gaspar Balbi's voyage, An. 1579. In the third volume Jacob Neck's voyage, Av. 1603, Jo. Hermon de Bree, An. 1602. Corn. Nicolas, Cornelius Ven, and Stephen de Hagen, all to India. Verhuff's voyage to India, An. 1607. Dialogues in Latin and the Malayc language. Hudson's voyage to the northeast passage. An account of Terra Australis incognita, by Capt. Peter Ferdinand de Quir; and the description of Siberia, Samoieda, and Tingoesia. Two voyages of Americus Vesputius to the East-Indies. A very strange relation of an Englishnan, who being shipwrecked on the coast of Cambaia, travelled through many of those eastern countries; and the description of the northern country of Spitzbergen: the whole illustrated with a vast number of maps, and other cuts. Thus far the three volumes of the East-Indies. The three of the West are composed of these parts. Vol. I. an ample account of Virginia. The unfortunate expedition of the French to Florida, An. 1565. Laudonniere's voyage thither, An. 1574. Two voyages of John Stadius to Brazil and the river of Plate, where he lived among the Indians. Leri's account of Brazil. Villagano's voyage to South America. Benzo's history of the discovery of America. Vol. II. The second and third parts of Benzo's history of the West Indies. Faber's description of several parts of America, where he travelled. Voyages of sir F. Drake, Cavendish, and Raleigh, Dutch expedition to the Canaries. General account of America.