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structures are renewed at least once each trium consequently does not have to be year. This generally occurs in the kept in the rich protoplasmic condition spring, because the light coat is neces in the monkey as in the human being. I sary for the warm and the heavy coat believe this difference is entirely one of for the cold weather.
development. In the human being nuIn birds the rutting season begins in trition is kept at the highest point all the spring, and the principal part of the the time, and is not affected by climatic moult occurs in the autumn after the and other conditions which affect the rutting season is over. Some birds, lower animals. Our nervous and circuhowever, have two moults, one in the latory systems are normally always in very early spring before the breeding good condition, and consequently the season begins, when they lose a few of human female is the only animal always the protecting feathers and in some ready for copulation and her endomecases grow most fantastic plumage,
trium is continuously in a higher state which is really a part of the sexual or of development than that of any other namentation and plays quite a rôle in animal. In order to keep her endomesexual selection. Darwin has empha- trium in this condition the over-ripe sized this point and uses it as one of the material is frequently thrown off, and foundation stones in his classical work this is all menstruation means. on sexual selection. He shows that I have intentionally omitted the conmany birds then get a special nuptial sideration of menstruation in domestic dress and that many queer freaks occur animals. This I described in a paper for this purpose. One of the strangest which I prepared for the British Gyneof these is found in the auk, which cological Association in 1887, and which grows special parts of his bill to be worn appeared on page 379 of the British Gyonly during the rutting season. After necological Journal for that year. This the fledglings begin to care for them- paper contained a systematic study of selves the parent birds begin to lose the cycle of the “rut” in the dog. It their feathers, and in a comparatively was extremely interesting to observe short time the new dress begins to form. the gradual growth of the protoplasm of The feathers, however, grow for a long the endometrium of the dog as the "rut” time, which must be when the creature . approached and large masses of rich corhas nothing else to do.
puscular development were formed to I wish to repeat here that menstrua receive the ripening ova. tion is only a shedding ; that it is a pro I wish especially to mention at this cess for getting rid of over-ripe material, time that Nature gets rid of that matewhich is formed for a special purpose rial, when conception is missed, by the and must be disposed of to make room lymphatics. The corpuscles undergo for newer and stronger material.
granular degeneration, are reabsorbed, In the study of human menstruation swept away through the lymphatics, it must be remembered that woman is and used up in the economy. This prothe only animal in which the “rut” is cess is identical in all horizontal animals. omnipresent. The endometrium of The method in erect animals I have alwoman is, however, different even from ready fully described. When an animal that of the monkey, in the sense that it becomes domesticated he is fed regularly, must always be kept in readiness to re his nervous system is always in good ceive the ovum. The best authorities condition, and he is thus prepared for say that the monkey generally has but more frequent “ rut” than when in the one breeding season each year, though wild state. The changes in the endosome of them, it is said, have two. This metrium necessary to the reception of usually occurs in the autumn in monkeys the egg require a longer or shorter inwith the longest period of incubation ; terval. but in some, in which the gestation is Only two papers of value have been comparatively short, a secondary breed written upon the menstruation of moning occurs in the spring. The endome. keys. The first was read by Bland Sut
ton before the British Gynecological the epithelium and the tissue underSociety in June, 1886; the second, by neath it. Walter Heape, M. A., Balfour Student Twenty years ago, when I was a med. of the University of Cambridge, was ical student, Remak's law appeared to published in the Philosophical Transac me absurd ; that the epiblast and the tions of the Royal Society of London, hypoblast exist in continued separation Form B. 101, 1894, and is the most im throughout life, that they have a dual portant paper that has yet appeared on existence, and that they are two separate this subject. Heape says that the Sem and distinct entities living side by side nopithecus entellus menstruates with fair in the same body throughout life, is unregularity, at least five or six times a doubtedly a reductio ad absurdum. I year. He adduces one of the strongest undertook some original studies in the arguments for the separation of ovula. winter of 1876-1877 to find out how the tion and menstruation — namely, that lymphatic corpuscle is manufactured, although these animals menstruate five, and herewith exhibit a drawing enlarged six or more times a year, they have but from that which accompanied my first two breeding seasons. The only criti article on the subject. This work was cism I have to offer on his work is that very difficult, as you all know how prohe has not examined the monkey during verbially hard the immersion lens is to the rutting season. His description of handle. After working one winter I the endometrium is indentical with my succeeded in establishing beyond a observations on the little girl who was doubt that the granules in the threads just beginning to menstruate, and on of this reticular tissue gradually grow, the dog in the mid-interval of the rut. become full-grown corpuscles, separate He regards the endometrium as an un from the threads, and float away in the differentiated tissue, lying ready for sud- lymph. For two winters subsequently den action, and capable of making im I worked on the same subject with refermense amounts of protoplasm on short ence to the epithelium, but the idea notice. Had he studied it at the time of karyokinesis so fully dominated my when the uterus must receive the im- thoughts that my results were not at all pregnated ovum, I am sure he would satisfactory, though at that time I made have found the protoplasm far more a drawing, which I still have in an old abundant. His description of the shed- sketch-book, showing that the hyaline ding of the epithelium coincides exactly layer is sometimes extremely granular, with my original paper on the menstrual and that there are all forms of gradations, organ, but is much better presented. from the little granule up to a young The only difference between us, I be- epithelial cell, protruding from it into lieve, relates to the method of produc- the rete Malpighii. This I first saw in tion of the protoplasm, but he did not an ordinary section of skin, again in the observe this structure when it was in frog of a colt's foot, and afterward in the most rapid stage of development. the matrix of the nail ; but the idea of
One of the greatest objections to the cell division still so strongly possessed acceptation of my idea of menstruation me that I was not satisfied, and never has been Remak's law. Nine years ago, understood the correct idea of the reproin my paper on the menstrual organ, I duction of the epithelium in the adult stated positively that the epithelium state until 1886-1887, when, by the study lining the endometrium is reproduced of feather development, I found that the directly from the tissues beneath it, and little granules in the hyaline layer gradthat it does not always grow from epithe- ually grow and protrude into the rete lium as we had been taught heretofore Malpighii until the full-grown epithelial to believe. Mr. Heape has beautifully cell of the deep layer is made. The demonstrated the validity of my position, only difference between the epithelial which none can gainsay. I have repro and connective tissue is that at a certain duced several of his drawings, which point the undifferentiated protoplasm show accurately the connection between begins to secrete gluey substance, which
marks the line between sustentacular and mals, time is a great desideratum, and protective tissue. To demonstrate this, it would be impossible to wait for the my friend, Mr. Walter Berry, a graduate growth of the cell from a little granule. of the Worcester, Mass., Technical Karyokinesis is therefore the process School, has made me two drawings, one used in cell production in the embryo, of the feather papilla in the quiet state but in adult life the cell is produced from namely, when the plumage is full grown the granule and is the source of supply
- and the other in the inoulting condi for the tissue waste from the wear and tion, when the young feather is just be tear of every-day life. This method of ginning to extend through the skin. In cell production has not been described the first the feather papilla is ordinary before. At the time Remak's law was mucous tissue, with large nuclei and formulated our ideas as to the condition corpuscles branching in every direction. of the tissues of the body were chaotic, The feather papilla contains a number and some such formula as this was necesof blood-vessels even in the quiet state, sary to hold back too exuberant ideas because the tissue is so abundant that and to tie down students until the origin transudation is not sufficient to nourish of every organ and every tissue was it and a better blood supply must be thoroughly understood. Remak's law had. In the active state, where plenty has accomplished a purpose, and, like of rich protoplasm is necessary, every the scaffolding around a building, it function is found intensified ; the gran must come down after the building is ules in these threads are enlarged and completed, for as long as the law stands grow until the whole lower part of the the study of the source of the supply papilla is a mass of protoplasm divided for the repair of the tissue waste of the up into corpuscles, very closely resem body must remain stationary. Remak's bling a lymphatic gland. The black lines
law takes no cognizance of the fact that higher up are the mature epithelial the mesoblast is made up from both columns which build up the feather. hypoblast and epiblast. A point which
Observation of the gradations from has not received enough attention is the beginning, at the bottom of the that the hypoblast undoubtedly makes feather, up to the columns, will demon connective tissue. The epiblast, mesostrate the gradations of the neutral pro blast and hypoblast have three great toplasmic corpuscles into the full-grown functions. epithelial cells. This, I believe, illus 1. The epiblast makes the sensory trates the law of supply for the waste apparatus ; it has to receive impressions, of all epithelial tissues in adult life. reason, and issue orders. In order to The other drawings represent various accomplish this the epiblast must enter forms of epithelium. Some of them are very largely into the composition of the copied from Quain's latest edition, which skin, and very few realize how much inis not yet complete, and show the young formation the skin really imparts. cells, which undoubtedly are buds from Next to the eye it gives us the most the sustentacular hyaline layer surround- impressions that we receive, and conseing each gland. In this group of cili- quently the epiblast must be its princiated epithelium, down next to the hya- pal component. The millions of touch line layer, the young cells are just grow- corpuscles and nerves which the skin ing away from the hyaline layer. My contains could not develop from the belief, therefore, is that our ideas of the other membranes. The epiblast, if you reproduction of epithelium in adult life will allow the simile, is the general to must be completely reconstructed. The whom all information must come and conditions in adult life are very different from whom all orders are issued. from those in embryonal life. In the 2. The mesoblast forms the muscles, embryo growth, destruction and repair bones and everything that goes to make take place rapidly. In the rapid changes the locomotive apparatus, and, with of development from the metazoic age slight assistance from the epiblast, it up to the highest development of ani. makes all the muscles, bones, connec
tive tissue, and the generative and the 2. The feather papilla, the hair parenal and other excretory organs. The pilla and the endometrium are only lomesoblast, then, is justly compared to cal hypertrophies of this same structure the army proper.
for specific purposes, and that only upon 3. The hypoblast simply deals with the the wearing out of this structure does food that is supplied to it, and is there extreme old age appear. fore only the commissary department. The one great pathological doctrine
By keeping the functions of these to draw from this is that we have at last three great subdivisions in view all the a key to what cirrhosis really is, because time in future study, a far clearer un the hyaline layer, with all its reduplicaderstanding would, I believe, be ob tions in the capsules of secreting organs, tained of what these three membranes can easily, as a result of slight irritamean, and how it is possible from this tion, instead of forming secreting cells, original trinity to form one great whole. take another course and form connective
My belief is that the reticular tissue tissue. found everywhere in the body has the In closing let me express my apprecifunction of producing protoplasm, and ation of the honor you have conferred that this protoplasm in turn makes tis upon me, and the pleasure it gives me sue epithelium, bone, or whatever may to lay before you the results of about be needed. After shedding, it manu twenty years of work. I have been led factures a new set of antlers for the along roads that were not of my own whole stag tribe once every year. The planning, and have, as it were, stumbled procreation of the race very largely de upon these conclusions along most unvolves upon it, for it manufactures not expected routes. Although many only the organs with which impregna- months of my life have been spent in tion is accomplished, but it goes further laboratories, the greater portion has been and makes the organs of sexual attrac spent at the bedside, in the ward, and tion, and in this way is an important in the study of nature in its wild haunts. factor in the preservation of the race. I am more than ever convinced that the In a paper before the British Medical only way to study any subject thoroughAssociation, in 1889, on “The Sexual
“The Sexual ly is not in the laboratory alone, and Ornaments," I stated that from the not to work it from the artificial sources horn of the stag to the beard of the forced upon us by civilization, but, like Aryan, the sexual ornaments are only a the bacteriologists, to go back to origikindred process to the manufacture of nal sources and watch it in its growth the endometrium."
and development through all the varied Summary. — 1. The hyaline layer, changes up to its mature state. Then, with its various modifications, is the and only then, can we obtain the commatrix of all epithelial tissues, and from plete picture of any tissue, structure, or it spring all the varied sexual orna being ments.
TREATMENT OF HYSTERIA IN THE a position to combat the cravings to MALE.—Dr. Dandridge states (Boston which he has yielded. Massage, espeMedical and Surgical Journal ) that it cially in connection with Turkish baths, is less frequent than in women, depend- will often have a happy effect, but proent on anemia and want of proper nour longed rest in bed is not, in his experiishment, and therefore the question of a ence, of frequent benefit. Relief from sufficiency of nourishing food is not so the anxiety of wearing and anxious duimportant and so hard a difficulty to ties, combined with prolonged and even meet. In those cases, however, where severe out-of-door exercise, is more excessive use of stimulants and ano likely to restore the healthy condition dynes or narcotics have been indulged of mind and body than anything else. in, proper feeding is of extreme import. The ability to take refreshing sleep is ance, in order to place the individual in the first step towards improvement.
tion disclosed a median ovoid tumor the
size of a fetal head at term, tender, irWHAT SHALL WE DO WITH THE OLD regular, and of varying consistence, one WELL? - Dr. Harvey B. Bashore of portion hard, another elastic. Moving West Fairview, Pennsylvania, says the cervix laterally did not disturb the (Medical News, September 7): What, tumor; pressing the latter forward moved then, shall be done with the old wells ? the uterus also. We all know that in the absence of a Median laparotomy by Jeannel on public supply deep tube-wells would be August 25 showed an unruptured cyst of the best remedy. Many, very many, the right tube. The tumor was sepapeople cannot avail themselves of this rated from the adhering omentum and source of supply; and the next best opened. It contained a reddish sebacething is to treat these wells after a ous magma and a fetus.
Total extirpamethod devised by Dr. Koch, which is tion of the tubal cyst and right ovary, effective, cheap, and greatly lessens the also cystic, followed by rapid recovery. dangers arising from the use of well The right cornu was normal, as was water. An iron tube, two or three also the insertion of the round ligament inches in diameter—with its lower end into the uterus, not into the wall of the perforated-is placed in the center of the cyst. The excision of the cyst did not well, and the surrounding space filled open the uterine cavity. These points, with fine gravel up to the highest point and the fact that tubo-interstitial pregof water level. This is then covered nancies have been known to continue with sand to the top of the well ; and a until near term without causing rupture, pump attached to the end of the tube confirm a diagnosis of tubo-interstitial makes a very effective tube-well. All pregnancy
pregnancy lasting fourteen months, water, in passing through the layers of with death of the fetus at six months, sand and gravel, is effectually filtered, rather than that of a pregnancy in the and the nitrifying organisms change the uterine cornu. The absence of rupture filth into harmless nitrates. A filter is explained by the attachment of the bed like this removes, too, from 80 to 90 placenta to the uterine flank of the inper cent. of the bacteria, and greatly, fero-lateral wall of the cyst. very greatly, lessens the danger to which all are subjected who drink shallow TREATMENT OF "Tabes. — L. Wolff well-water.
(American Medical and Surgical Bulletin,
August 15) has studied three cases of TUBAL PREGNANCY OF FOURTEEN tabes dorsalis, in which the so-called MONTHS.-Stieber (American Journal of gastric crises were not only the first, but Obstetrics) says: The patient was mar the dominating, symptoms of the disried in November, 1891. Menstruation, ease. There was
a constant lack of previously regular, ceased in May, 1892, hydrochloric acid both during the crises and later her breasts and abdomen and in the intervals between them. In showed the usual signs of pregnancy. order to lessen the sensibility of the In December, 1892, pains in the head and nervous apparatus of the stomach, as abdomen ; breasts became hard, painful well as the entire nervous system, the and secreted a quantity of milk. This author recommends nitrateofsilver (0.01. lasted eight days, then fetal movements gme.-1-6 grn.) and extract of bellahad ceased. In February, 1893, painful donna (0.05 gme.—78 grn.) to be given, uterine contractions with a small flow of during the free intervals, an hour before blood and membranes and secretion of meals. He also recommends galvanizamilk. The abdomen diminished in size tion of the spine, neck and abdomen, in and gradually became hard. In March sittings of not longer than five minutes, the menses reappeared, accompanied by every day or so for several weeks, with pains in the loins and thighs.
tepid baths, at a temperature never beOn August 20 the patient, a primipara low 20 degrees to 22 degrees C. (68 aged 20, entered the clinic. Examina. degrees to 72 degrees F.).