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and childhood are throughout the world, takes place from without, from the the same in London, New York, Chicago udder or tail of the cow, hands of the and all large cities. Every large city attendant, etc., the milking should be becomes the field for the proliferation of carried on under as nearly antiseptic all kinds of diseases and as infants have precaution as possible, and sterilization less resisting power they are the easiest of the milk should be done soon after attacked. If an infant came into the the milking. The bottle and utensils world perfect with perfect surroundings should be kept scrupulously clean, the very few would die but more come into nipple should be thoroughly sterilized the world imperfect; one-tenth of all the and kept so, not given to the child to children born die in one month,one-fourth play with. Milk to be kept any length in one year, one-half in before five years of time should be sterilized for one hour of age. The cause of the mortality in a day for three successive days at 100° children may be classed under three Centigrade. If it is to be used in one heads: 1. Hereditary disease ; 2. Zymo- day it must only by sterilized for one tic disease ; 3. Lack of natural affection. hour at 100° Centigrade. In conclusion, I believe that not more than one-third sterilization of milk is the greatest of the children born are wanted by their method we possess of preventing summer parents and the mothers are in constant diarrhea and if carried to sufficient exrebellion during gestation and the tent the disease may be almost entirely nursing period. Food is often given wiped out. very unwisely and too little attention is

SECTION ON PRACTICE OF MEDICINE. given to proper clothing as to texture and equality of warmth and pressure over

FOURTH DAY, FRIDAY, MAY 10. various portions of the body.

Dr. W. D. Booker of Baltimore read Dr. J. H. Kellogg of Battle Creek, the last paper of the session on Modern Michigan, read a paper on New Methods Methods of Preparing Food for Infants. of Precision in the Investigation of The advance in the study of infantile Functional Disorders of Digestion, in diet has been great in the last few years which he spoke of the digestion of sugar and the universal conclusion has been and starch and reported on 4000 cases reached that, next to mother's milk, the in his practice. This was discussed by best and most rarely blamed article of Dr. Webster of Chicago. food is cow's milk. And the subject Dr. I. E. Atkinson of Baltimore renow resolves itself into its proper prepa- ported a Case of Suppurative Pancreatiration and administration; next to the tis with Necropsy which he thought at quality of the food is to be considered first was hepatic colic. This was disthe quantity which should be given and cussed by Dr. Webster and Dr. Stockthis is not a matter which is easily de ton. termined. We can best be guided by Dr. F. B. Turck of Chicago read a the manner in which it is digested as paper on Methods of Diagnosis and evidenced by the stools, vomit, etc., Treatment of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract. also by the production of colic and sleep- Other papers were read by title. lessness. If digestion is faulty the quantity of food should be reduced until SECTION ON SURGERY AND ANATOMY. easily assimilated and then gradually

FOURTH DAY, FRIDAY, MAY IO. increased. The superiority of mother's milk over cow's milk lies in its purity, Dr. Thomas H. Manley of New York rather than its quality. We may render read a paper entitled Deformities followcow's milk almost as good by proper ing Fractures of the Shafts of Bones, disterilization; the character of the food viding them into preventable and those and water given to the cow is of great beyond control. In his experience in importance. As cows suffering from many cases a disfigurement is unavoidcontagious disease will exhale the germs able. Many other papers in this secand the infection of the milk usually tion were read by title.


which was the adoption of a resolution endorsing the paper and urging the Leg

islature to pass the bill providing an apTHE PENNSYLVANIA STATE

propriation. MEDICAL SOCIETY.

A motion to endorse the use of indi

vidual communion cups called forth a CHAMBERSBURG, storm of protests, and by an almost May 24, 1895

unanimous vote was laid on the table.

A resolution was adopted requesting Following closely upon the medical

chemists to omit directions for use from conventions held in Baltimore in May,

catalogues of medicines and also reour neighbors to the northward, the Medical Society of the State of Pennsyl- ents of remedies. The report of the

questing the publication of the ingredivania, convened in their Forty-fifth

Nominating Committee was adopted, Annual Session at Chambersburg, on

and these officers were elected : PresiTuesday, the 21st.

dent, W. S. Foster, Pittsburgh ; ViceThe session was called to order on

Presidents, John Montgomery, ChamTuesday morning by the President, Dr.

bersburg ; A. P. Hull, Lycoming ; F. H. John B. Roberts, of Philadelphia. The

Sharpnack, Greene; A. B. Brumbaugh, programme for the four days embraced

Huntingdon ; Secretary, W. B. Atkinthe following: Address of welcome by

son, Philadelphia ; Assistant Secretary, the Hon. John Stewart, of Chambers

A. L. Stevens, Bradford ; Treasurer, G. burg. Address in Medicine, Dr. J. C.

B. Dunmire, Philadelphia ; Board of Gable of York ; Hygiene, Dr. Hildegarde H. Longsdorf, Carlisle; Surgery, Bland, Schuylkill ; T. P. Simpson,

Trustees and Judicial Council, D. W. Dr. C. L. Stevens, Athens ; Obstetrics, Beaver, and Henry Beattes, Jr., PhilaDr. W. B. Ulrich, Chester ; Address of

delphia. the President, Dr. John B. Roberts of

The exhibitors, with their accustomed Philadelphia ; Mental Disorders, Dr.

wide-awakefulness and business enterF. X. Dercum of Philadelphia ; and prise, made a very creditable display of over seventy papers covering a wide

surgical and pharmaceutical products. range of topics and limited to ten min

But the ever-recurring question of how utes each. The following social entertainments

to elicit greater interest on the part of

delegates to this feature of medical conwere provided and admirably conducted

ventions again presents itself. The to the enjoyment of all : Wednesday Journal was the pioneer, we believe, evening, an Informal Reception at Wil.

in the agitation of that subject, and son College by the President and Fac

through its series of questions proulty. Thursday evening, visit to the

pounded at the Baltimore convention new Soldier's Orphan Industrial School

had called forth some very practical sugat Scotland, and excursion to Mont Al

gestions, the influence of which has alto Park and banquet. Friday, excursion

ready become manifest. The following to Gettysburg. The most popular subject for presen

firms were represented: tation was Typhoid fever, the topic

D. Appleton & Co., W. D. Allison Co., Armour & Co.,

William Barnett, F. A. Davis Co., Doliber-Goodale having been so often treated that after

Co., Fairchild Bros., & Foster, Grosvenor & Co., the eighth paper it was proposed to Horlick's Food Co., Hygeia Mineral Water Co., group them together and give the sub Keasbey & Mattison, Kress & Owen, Londonderry ject a full session. Dr. George S. Hull Lithia Water Co., Chas. Lentz & Sons, Maltine Man

ufacturing Co., Charles Marchand, Medical Novelty exposed some of the popular fallacies on

Co., McConnell Germ Proof Filter Co., McKesson & electricity. Dr. Benjamin Lee, Secre

Robbins, New York Pharmaceutical Co., David tary of the State Board of Health, read Nicholson,Oakland Chemical Co.,Ostertog & Walton, an able paper on The Necessity for a Philadelphia Typewriter Exchange, W. B. Saun

ders, Seawright Lithia Water Co., Schull, Tuttle State System of Registration of Vital

& Co., Tarrant & Co., Tar-Burner Lithia Co., Wm. R. Statistics in Pennsylvania, the result of

Warner & Co., John Wyeth & Bro.


stand taken in some States on food adulteration, he thinks that too great stress is laid on

Medical Journal. pure unadulterated alcoholics which gives


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the im

on that if whiskey and other stimulants are only pure and free from adulteration they would be comparatively harmless. This he seeks to contradict, by saying that it is the alcohol in all such stimulants that has the effect and a man may become a drunkard from pure as well as from impure whiskey; and, indeed, in analysing whiskies taken at random from the highest and lowest dealers he claims that the cheap whiskies do the least harm, because they contain the least amount of alcohol. The adulterations are usually inert and of little effect as compared to the alcohol contained. The alcoholic drinks from beer with its two per cent. of spirit to brandy with its 60 per cent., all de. pend on this spirit for their intoxicating effect whatever the other ingredients may be. The purest does just as much harnı and probable more than the adulterated.

As for tobacco, this chemist finds that prejudice has much to do with legislation against certain forms of tobaccos, notably the cigarette. The active principle in all tobacco is the nicotine, which in the growing youth most certainly affects the body, and indeed in all excessive smokers the poisonous principle of the tobacco makes known its effects in many cases. The adulterations which are commonly supposed to be put into cigarettes this chemist finds are not present, not because the manufacturers might not hesitate to put them there, but because such things as opium, lead, arsenic, etc., are all too expensive to be incorporated into cigarette tobacco. The great danger of cigarettes is, according to this chemist, the convenient form in which they are sold, too often in broken packages at a small price within the reach of the poorest; more of them are consumed and niore nicotine is absorbed at an age when the body is growing. The paper he found to be as a rule pure and free from all harmless adulteration. A pleasant and attractive flavor allures the youth into consuming more cigarettes than are good for him. He says in conclusion :

“The purest tobacco is undoubtedly that which is prepared for pipe smoking; purer, in my opinion, than that found in the average cigar; yet the nearer it comes to the absolutely pure leaf the higher the per cent. of nicotine ; but neither in the cigar, nor cigar

The effects of alcohol and tobacco on the human body have been made the theme of es

says and papers innumAlcohol and Tobacco. erable, and few persons

have expressed views without a very strong bias in one direction or the other. Whether the world would be better without these two commodities is not easy to say.

Dr. Albert R. Leroux in a paper before the New York Society of Medical Jurisprudence on “ Popular Fallacies as to Alcohol and Tobacco" discusses the subject from the standpoint of an analytical chemist and his views as published in the Medical Examiner deserve attention.

There is probably no unbiased person who would not admit that alcohol does infinitely more harm than good in its use. The writer does not take into account the moral effects of the drug given in excessive quantities and claims to be without bias. He lays bare what he is pleased to call fallacies and these deserve further remark. In view of the

* * *

ette, nor chopped or cut tobacco, is there at probably the kymograph. He was the author this day, among all the adulterations, any of important researches on the circulation of thing approaching in potency this nicotine the blood, on the influence of respiration on which they contain.

the circulation, and on the action of the me“Whether we are smokers or non-smokers, dulla oblongata on the circulation. He also whether we are moderate or immoderate made very valuable researches on the part drinkers or total abstainers, let us fearlessly played by the nervous system in glandular and honestly and intelligently instruct the secretion. Not only physiology, but also rising generation that alcohol and tobacco pathology and clinical medicine are greatly are substances to be avoided by youth, po indebted to him. Among his pupils need matter in what form, or under what name only be mentioned the late Professor Cohnthey may be sold ; and let the intelligent phy heim, formerly one of the leading patholosician, who meets in his practice the too slav gists of Germany. The Physiological Instiish devotee of the tobacco habit or the votary tute of Leipzig, of which Professor Ludwig of alcohol, inform his patient in all candor was the director, was a center of attraction and fearlessness that it is the alcohol and not only for students, but also for graduates, nicotine which he must let alone, and not en who came there from all parts of the world to deavor to shift him from port to sherry or study under his direction. Professor Ludwig's from cigar to pipe under the vain delusiou name will ever hold an honored place in the that if one harms the other will benefit. history of medicine.

« In the death of Professor Thiersch anWithin one week in April, the University other of the prominent leaders of German of Leipzig, Germany, and the whole medical surgery, whose reputations were won in the

world has suffered a great campaigns of thirty and forty years ago, has Recent Deaths. loss in the death of two men passed away. Professor Thiersch was born whose names

were known at Munich in 1822, and had just completed over the whole scientific world, and whose his seventy-fourth year when he died on the work impressed all the teachings in the past 28th ult. After studying at Berlin, Vienna ten years.

One was Karl Ludwig and the and Paris, he obtained his doctorate at Munich, other Karl Thiersch. The foreign medical his graduation thesis being on the Action of press in noticing the death of these two men Drugs. He engaged as surgeon iu 1850, in makes the following comments :

the second Schleswig-Holstein campaign, “ Professor Karl Ludwig, one of the great when he served under Stromeyer, whose est physiologists of Germany, died in Leipzig, teaching and example had much influence on on April 25. He was born in 1816, at Witzen him. From 1848 to 1854 he was prosector in hausen and took the degree of doctor in 1839, the Munich Pathological Institute; in 1854 afterwards becoming privat-docent in 1842, he was appointed Professor of Surgery at the at the University of Marburg. This town he University of Erlangen, and was transferred left in 1849 for Zürich, where he staid for thence to Leipzig in 1867, where he occupied six years as Extraordinary Professor. In the chair of Surgery for twenty-eight years. 1856 he was appointed Ordinary Professor at In the war of 1870 he was consulting surgeonthe abolished Academy for Army Surgeons in general to the 12th Army Corps (Saxon). Vienna. For the last thirty years he was His writings have not been numerous. PerProfessor of Physiology in the University of haps the most important was the monograph Leipzig, which owes to him no small part of on Epithelial Cancer published in 1865, which its renown. At a very early period of his was marked by great originality and advanced academical career he opposed all the tran considerably the histology of epithelioma. scendental theories in physiology which were His work upon Skin Grafting is also well then in vogue, and his first published work en known. He contributed an article to the first titled "The Mechanism of the Secretion of volume of the Pitha-Billroth Hand-book of SurUrine,' explained the formation of urine in gery upon the 'Minute Anatomical Changes the kidney on merely mechanical principles. following Wounds of Soft Parts,' another He improved physiological methods by the histological study which opened up new conintroduction of apparatus for the graphic re ceptions of the healing of wounds. He was cording of results, the most notable being an earnest follower of the Listerian methods.

II 22 2









Among the entertainments not noted during

the Association meeting was a dinner by the We are indebted to the Health Department

Flint Club, one by Dr. George H. Rohé at the of Baltimore for the following statement of Maryland Hospital and a reception by the Wocases and deaths reported for the week end man's Medical College. ing May 25, 1895.

The State Medical Examining and LicensCases

ing Board elected the following officers for Diseases.


the ensuing year; President, Dr. W. W.

Potter of Buffalo; Vice-President, Dr. J. M. Smallpox......

Hayes of Greensboro, N. C.; Secretary, Pneunionia..

Dr. B. N. Griffith of Springfield, Ill.
Phthisis Pulmonalis..

The New York Legislature has enacted a Whooping Cough....

law making it mandatory upon cities of that Pseudo-membranous

State having populations of over 50,000 in. Croup and Diphtheria.) Mumps...

habitants to establish free public baths, and Scarlet fever..


authorizing cities with less than 50,000 inhabVarioloid..

itants to raise money for a like purpose. Varicella... Typhoid fever.

Dr. Max Simon Nordau, the author of

“Degeneration,” says the Journal, is a medi. Dr. Richard J. Dunglison has been re

cally educated man. He was born at Budaelected President of the Musical Fund Society

Pesth in 1849, took his medical degree in 1873 of Philadelphia.

traveled and studied medicine for five years,'

at the end of which time he made his permaThe ordinance to put typhoid fever on the

nent home in Paris. He became a corresponlist of diseases to be reported awaits the stroke of the mayor's pen.

dent of the Frankfurter Zeitung and other

German journals, also contributing social and Mr. Henry P. Hyuson of Hynson, West

political writings to various French reviews, cott & Co. was elected President of the Mary

some of which attracted marked notice. land State Pharmaceutical Association. Smallpox has been reported in Staunton,

The American Medical Temperance Asso

ciation elected the following officers : Dr. Virginia, Wheeling and Martinsburg, West

N. S. Davis of Chicago, Ill., President; Virginia, Concord, New Hampshire, Indianapolis and Philadelphia.

Dr. I. N. Quimby, Jersey City, N. J., Dr.

J. B. Whiting Janesville, Wis.; Dr. F. E. The ordinance to appropriate $500 for free

Yoakuni, Shreveport, La.; Dr. J. Taft, Cincin. public baths for Baltimore has passed both

nati, O., Vice-Presidents; Dr. T. D. Crothers branches of the City Council and awaits the

of Hartford, Ct., Secretary, and Dr. G. W. Mayor's signature.

Webster, Chicago, Ill., Treasurer, were all reDr. Perceval S. Rossiter of the Class of 1895, elected to fill the same offices during the enUniversity of Maryland, has been appointed suing year. Dr. J. H. Kellogg of Battle Creek, assistant resident physician at the Maryland Mich., was elected Corresponding Secretary. Hospital for the Insane.

The following new appointments for 1895Dr. E. Behring has been appointed Profes

96 to the faculty of the Woman's Medical sor and Director of the Hygienic Institute in

College, McCulloh and Hoffman streets, have the Universityof Marburg in succession to

been made: Dr. Claribel Cone, professor of Professor Carl Fraenkel.

pathology ; Dr. Edith Eareckson, lecturer on The male chorus from Dr. John C. Hem

hygiene ; Dr. Louise Eaton, resident physimeter's cantata “Hygeia” was beautifully cian of the Maternité Hospital; Dr. Sue Radrendered at the Music Hall reception by the cliff, resident physician of the Good Samari. Germania Maennerchor.

tan Hospital; Dr. B. B. Lanier, professor of Dr. Noeggerath, the well known gynecolo operative surgery ; Dr. G. Milton Linthicum, gist who formerly practiced in New York, professor of physiology ; Dr. W. M. Lewis, died in Wiesbaden, Germany, where he had professor of normal histology ; Dr. S. G. been living for the past six years.

Davis, demonstrator of anatomy.

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