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the pontiffs and bishops, he maintained publicly, that the treasures and revenues of popes, bishops, and monasteries, ought to be solemnly transferred to the rulers of each state; and that nothing was to be left to the ministers of the gospel but a spiritual authority, and a subsistence drawn from tithes, and from the voluntary oblations of the •ople." ARTEMONITES, a denomination in the second century; so called from Arteman, who taught that at the birth of the man Christ, a certain divine energy, or portion of the divine nature, united itself to him.t ARTOTYRITES, a denomination in the second century, who celebrated the eucharist with bread and cheese; saying that the first oblations of men were of the fruits of the earth and of sheep. The word is derived from the greek of apros, bread, and rvpos, sheese.—The Artotyrites admitted women to the priesthood and episcopacy. I ASCLEPIDOTAANS, a denomination in the third century; so called from Asclepidotus, who taught that Jesus Christ was a mere man.S ASCODROGITES, a denomination which arose in the
year one hundred and eightyone. They brought into their churches bags, or skins, filled with new wine, to represent the new bottles filled with new wine mentioned by Christ. They danced round these bags, or skins, and intoxicated themselves with the wine. They are likewise called Ascitae; and both words are derived from the greek of a;x3, a bottle, or bag.]] ASCODRUTES, a branch of Gnostics in the second century, who placed all religion in knowledge; and asserted that divine mysperies, being the images of invisible things, ought not to be performed by visible things, nor incorporeal things by corporeal and sensible. Therefore they rejected baptism and the eucharist.T. ASSURITANS, a branch of the Donatists, who held that the Son was inferior to the Father, and the holy Ghost to the Son. They re-baptized those who embraced their sect, and asserted that good men only were within the pale of the church.** See Donatists. ATHANASIANS, those who profess similar sentiments to those taught by Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, who flourished in the fourth century. He was bishop forty-six years; and his long administration was spent in a perpetual combat against the powers of Arianism. He is said to have consecrated every moment, and every faculty of his being, to the defence of the doctrine of the Trinity.—The scheme of Athanasius made the supreme Deity to consist of three persons, the same in substance, equal in power and glory. The first of these three persons, and fountain of divinity to the other two, it makes to be the Father ; the second person is called the Son, and is said to be descended from the Father by an eternal generation of an ineffable and incomprehensible nature in the essence of the Godhead ; the third person is the holy Ghost, derived from the Father and the Son, but not by generation, as the Son is derived from the Father, but by an eternal and incomprehensible procession. Each of these persons are very and eternal God, as much as the Father himself; afid, yet, though distinguished in this manner, they do not make three Gods, but one God.” This system also includes in it the belief of two natures in Jesus Christ; viz. the divine and human, forming one per
son.—To prove the divinity of Christ, and his co-equality with the Father, this denomination argue thus: In John i. 1, it is said expressly, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God; which implies that the Word existed from all eternity, not as a distinct, separate power; but the Word was with God, and the Word was God: not another God, but only another person of the same nature, substance, and Godhead.—It is evident that John intended the word God in this strict sense, from the time of which he is speaking. In the beginning the Word was God,i.e. before the creation. It is not said that he was appointed God over the things which should be afterwards created. He was God before any dominion over the creatures commenced.—It is said that all things were absolutely made by him: therefore he who created all things cannot be a created being. Since nothing was made but by and through him, it follows that the Son, as creator, must be eternal, and strictly divine.—Christ's divinity and co-equality with the Father, are plainly taught
* It is thus expressed in the Athanasian Creed : The catholic faith is this, that we worship one God in trimity, and trinity in unity. For there is one person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the holy Ghost. But the go thead of the Father, of the Son, and of the holy Ghost, is all one ; the glory equal, the majesty co-eternal,
this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus, who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal, with God; but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, &c.— Our divine Saviour says of himself, I and my Father are one—He that has seen me has seen the Father—All that the Father hath are mine. (John v. 19, ch. x. 30. ch. xvi. 15.) Those high and strong expressions teach that he is the supreme God.—The prophets describe the true God as the only Saviour of sinners. For thus it is written: I, even I, am Jehovah ; and besides me there is no Saviour. Jesus Christ not only professes to save sinners, but he calls himself the Saviour by way of eminence. Hence it is evident, that he assumes a character in the most emphatical way which the God of Israel had challenged and appropriated to himself.-The divine titles which are ascribed to the Son in scripture are, The true God —The mighty God—The Alpha and Omega, the first and the last—God over all, blessed for evermore. (1 John v. 20. Isai. ix. 6. Rev. i. 8. Rom. ix. 5.)
* It has been observed by critics on lable, jah, ineans the divine essence, a
And Thomas calls Christ, after his resurrection, his Lord and God.—The titles given to Christ in the new testament, are the same with those which are given to God in the jewish scriptures. The name Jehocah,” which is appropriated to God, (Psal. lxxxiii. 18. Isai. xiv. 5.) is given to Christ. (Compare Isai. xiv. 23–25, with Rom. xiv. 12. Isai. xi. 3, with Luke i. 76.) Jesus is the person spoken of by John, whose glory Isaiah is declared to have seen, when he affirms he saw the Lord of Hosts: therefore Jesus is the Lord of Hosts.-The attributes which are sometimes appropriated to God are applied to Christ. Omniscience is ascribed to Christ: Now we are sure that thou knowest all things. (John xvi. 10.) To be the searcher of the heart is the peculiar and distinguishing characteristic of the one true God, as appears from Jer. xvii. 10. Yet our blessed Lord claims this perfection: I am he (saith he) that searcheth the reins and the heart. (Rev. ii. 23.) Omnipresence, another divine attribute, is ascribed to Christ. JWhere two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. (Matt. xviii. 20.) Immutability is ascribed to Christ: Thou art
the word Jehorah, that the first sylnd that by hovah may be understood
calamity, grief, destruction. Hence some have supposed the design of that Yenerable name was, to convey unto us the ideas of a divine essence in a human frame, and a suffering and crucified Messiah.
the same, and thy years shall not
fail. (Heb. i 10, 11, 12.) This is the very description which the Psalmist gives of the immutability of the only true God. See also Heb. xiii. 8. Eternity is ascribed to Christ. (Rev. i. 8.) The Son's being Jehovah is another proof of his eternity, that name expressing necessary existence. Christ is also said to have almighty power. (Heb. i. 3. Phil. iii. 21.) The truth and faithfulness of God are ascribed to Christ. I am (says he) the truth, &c.—Divine works are also ascribed to Christ, viz. creation, preservation, and forgiveness of sins. There are numerous texts of scripture which assert that Christ is the creator of all things: Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of thy hands. (Heb. i. 10. also Rev. iii. 14. 1 Cor. viii. 6.) The work of creation is every where in scripture represented as the mark and characteristic of the true God. (2 Kings xix. 15. Job xxii. 7. Psal. xix. 1.) Hence it is evident that Christ, the creator, is the true God. Preservation is ascribed to Christ: Upholding all things by the word of his power. (Heb. i. 3.) Christ himself says, The
Son of Man hath power on earth, to forgive sins. (Matt. ix. 6.)—Christ's being appointed the supreme Judge of the world, is an evidence that he is the true God. The God of Israel is emphatically styled the Judge of all.”—Religious worship, though appropriated to God, was by divine approbation and command given to Christ. In Heb. i. 6, the apostle, speaking of Christ, says, Let the angels of God worship him. (See also Luke xxiv. 25. John v. 23. Rev. i. 5, 6. v. 13) The scripture every where asserts that God alone is to be worshipped. The same scripture asserts that our blessed Saviour is to be worshipped. Thus Stephen adores him with direct worship: Lord Jesus, receive my spirit A The obvious consequence of which is, that our blessed Saviour is God. This denomination allege, that divine titles, attributes, works, and worship, are also ascribed to the holy Ghost.— Many plead that the holy Spirit is called Jehovah in the old testament, by comparing Acts xxviii. 23, with Isai. vi. 9. And he also appears to be called God, in Acts v. 4.—Eternity is clearly the property of the holy Ghost, who is styled by the author of the epistle to the Hebrews, the Eternal Spirit. (Heb. ix. 14.)—Omnipresence is a necessary proof of divinity, and this attribute belongs to the holy Spirit; for thus saith the inspired poet, Whither shall I go from thy Spirit 2 (Psal. cxxxix. 7.)— Omniscience is ascribed to the Spirit: For the Spirit searcheth all things, even the deep things of God. (1 Cor. ii. 10.)—Paul declares that his ability to work all manner of astonishing miracles, for the confirmation of his ministry, was imparted to him by the Spirit. (Rom. xv. 19.) The same act of divine grace; viz. our spiritual birth, is ascribed, without the change of a single letter, to God and , the Spirit. (John ii. 1. 1 John v. iv.)—The chief texts produced to prove that divine worship is given to the Spirit, are, Matt. xxiii. 19. Isai. vi. 3, 9. Acts xxviii. 25, &c. Rom. ix. 1. Rev.i.4. 2 Cor. xiii. 14. There are various texts of scripture, in which Father, Son, and Spirit, are mentioned together, and represented under distinct personal characters.-At the baptism of Christ, the Father speaks with an audible voice; the Son, in
* Mr. Alexander's late Essay on the real Deity of Jesus Christ.
human nature, is baptized by John ; and the holy Ghost appears in the shape of a dove. (Matt. iii. 16, 17.) The trimity of persons in the Godhead appears from our baptism, because it is dispensed in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Ghost. The trinity of persons also appears from the apostolic benediction: The grace of the Lord Jesus, the love of God, and the communion of the holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen. (1 Cor. xiii. 14.) And also from the testimony of the Three in heaven, contained in 1 John v. 7. The Trinity in Unity is one supreme Being, distinguished from all others by the name of Jehovah. The Lord our God is one Jehovah. (Deut. vi. 4.) Yet Christ is Jehovah. (Jer. xxiii. 6.) So is the Spirit. (Ezek. viii. 1, 3.) Therefore Father, Son, and holy Ghost, are one Jehovah: they are three persons, but have one name, and one nature.” AUDAEANS, a denomination in the fourth century; so called from Audaeus, who was said to have attributed to the Deity a human form.t AZY MITES, so called from
* Waterland's Sermons,
34, 69, 97, 164. Vindication of Christ's Di
vinity, p. 263,269. Seed's §. vol. ii. p. 420. Doddridge's Lectures, 392. Willard's Body of Divinity, p. 100. Hervey's Letters, p. 103, 104. ones's Doctrine of the Trinity, p. 2, 34, 62, 69. Abbadle on the Divinity of Christ, p. 58, 65, 242. Mather on the word Jehovah, The Creed of
f Mosheim, vol. i. p. 350.