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Canary islands, Mexico, Carthagena, and Lima.” The power of the inquisition has however been diminished in some respects by the interference of the civil power.t

The king of Spain has at length stripped the inquisition of the powers which rendered it odious and terrible. It will in future be little more than a college of inquiry in religious matters. Its jurisdictions and prisons are taken from it, and those powers happily restored to civil tribunals. This measure will have an extraordinary effect in promoting arts, manufactures, commerce, and learning. Spain in future will be a secure and happy residence for strangers.: The power of the clergy has been much reduced of late years. A royal edict has also been issued, to prevent the admission of noviciates into the different convents without special permission, which has a great ten

dency to reduce the monastic orders.S The public worship in Spain: is loaded with an enormous number of ceremonies. The whole of the canon law is here in force, and the power of the pope is still very extensive. It is supposed that the clergy of this kingdom amount at present to two hundred thousand persons, half of whom are monks and nuns, distributed through three thousand convents. The possessions of the clergy are very ample. The revenue of the archbishop of Toledo amounts to three hundred thousand Spanish ducats. There are in the kingdom of Spain, eight archbishops, and forty-six bishops; in America six archbishops, and twenty-eight bishops; in the Philippine islands one archbishop, and three bishops. All those dignities are in the gift of the king. Fifty-two inferior ecclesiastical dignities and offices are in the gift of the pope."[

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THE established religion are several tribunals of inquiin this kingdom is the Roman sition in Portugal; viz. at Catholic, to the exclusion of Lisbon, Coimbre, Evora, and any other profession. There at Goa, in the East Indies.

* Payne's Epitome of History, vol. i. p. 245. 3 Zimmermann, f Annual Register for 1774, p. 89. § Guthrie. | The canon law consisted originally of the decrees of general councils and synods, and then of the constitution of popes, and decisions of the court of Roine.

‘I Zimmermann, p. 320–323,


A great number of jews are,
however, in the country, who
conform outwardly with the
established religion : it is said
that many of them are even
among the clergy.
The Portuguese clergy con-
sist of one patriarch, a dig-
nity granted to the church of
Portugal in the year 1716; of
three archbishops, and fifteen
bishops. The number of the
ecclesiastical persons, on the
whole, amounts to two hun-
dred thousand, thirty thou-
sand of whom are monks and
nuns. According to others,
there are sixty thousand
monks and nuns, and seven

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* Zimmermann, pp. 537, 538.

t Notwithstanding this terrific institution, great numbers of protestants, particularly English, live in Portugal, and openly profess their religion unmolested.

# In some Roman Catholic states, the sovereign nominates persons to bishoprics, and great benefices; but bulls from Rome are necessary to enable them to enter into the exercise of their functions. See Wattel's Law of Nations,

§ Canonization is a ceremony in the Romish church, by which persons deceased are ranked in the catalogue of saints.--The beatification of a saint is previous to his canonization. Before that can take place, attestations of virtues and miracles are necessary. These are examined, sometimes for several years, by the congregation of rites. Before a beatified person is canonized, the qualifications of the candidate are strictly examined into in consistories held for that purpose. After this the pope decrees the ceremony, and appoints the day, .


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not, like that of other bishops, confined to particular countries, but extends through the whole body of Roman Catholics in the christian world." The cardinals, who are next in dignity to the pope, are seventy, in allusion to the seventy disciples of our Saviour, and are chosen by the Roman pontiff. The government devolves on them during the vacancy of the holy see. These cardinals elect the pope, and are the only persons on whom the choice can fall ; the election is determined by the plurality of voices. The election of a pope is followed by his coronation; and that ceremony is performed in the lateran church, where they put a triple crown on his head. The provinces which depend on the holy see are governed by legates; and there are few countries where the pope has not ambassadors, who are styled nuncios. The title given to the pope is his holiness, and the cardinals have that of eminence. All the numerous ecclesiastics and religious orders who profess the Roman Catholic religion, are under the pope; and every one of these orders has its general at Rome, by whom the pope is acquainted with every thing that passes in the world.

The-Ceremonies which are observed at the election and coronation of a pope cannot be abridged in the narrow limits of this work. A modern traveller asserts that no ceremony can be better calculated for striking the senses, and imposing on the understanding, than that of the supreme pontiff giving the blessing from the balcony of St. Peter. This ceremony, at which he was present, he describes in the following manner: “It was a remarkable fine day; an immense multitude filled that spacious and magnificent area; the horse and foot-guards were drawn up in their most showy uniform. The pope, seated in an open, portable chair, in all the splendour which his wardrobe could give, with the tiara on his head, was carried out of a large window, which opens on a balcony in the front of St. Peter's. The silk hangings and gold trappings with which the chair was embellished, concealed the men who carried it ; so that to those who viewed him from the area below, his holiness seemed to sail forward from the window, self-balanced in the air, like a celestial being. The instant he appeared the music struck up, the bells rung from every church, and the cannon thundered from the castle of St. Angelo in repeated peals. During the intervals the church of St. Peter, the palace of the Vatican, and the banks of the Tiber, reechoed the acclamations of the populace. At length his holiness arose from his seat, when an immediate and awful silence ensued. The multitude fell upon their knees, with their hands and eyes raised towards his holiness, as to a benign deity. After a solemn pause he pronounced the benediction with great fervour, elevating his out-stretched arms as high as he could, then closing them together, and bringing them back to his breast with a slow motion, as if he had got hold of the

* This peculiarly distinguishes the bishop of Rome from other bishops.


blessing, and was drawing it

gently from heaven. Finally: he threw his arms open, waving them for some time, as if his intention had been to scatter the benediction with only among the peo€. >> Of late the papal authority has evidently been at a low ebb, and is not respected as it was in former ages.t. The late celebrated pope Ganganelli, known by the name of Clement the fourteenth, who has been

styled the phenix of ages,t after the maturest deliberation, signed a brief, July 21. 1773, which suppressed the famous order of the jesuits, who have been the warmest: asserters of the papal power, and whose cabals and intrigues have made them formidable. for ages to every court in Europe, and enabled them to establish a powerful and wellregulated sovereignty in another hemisphere. As the jesuits had a great share in the education of youth, the shutting up of their schools might have proved of bad consequences, if this pontiff had not prevented it. After having sketched out a plan of education worthy of the greatest master, he cast a rapid eye upon some priests and friars, who by their talents and example were capable of replacing the jesuit teachers, and immediately instituted them professors. To the astonishment of Rome, there seemed to be scarce an interval between the departure of the jesuits, and the coming of their successors.| In the Roman Catholic kingdoms Rome has no administration but what is purely spiritual. It is only in the ecclesiastical state that she

Paraguay, in SQuth America, has any temporal authority.” The inquisition in Italy has of late been little more than a sound. Persons of all denominations live here unmolested, provided no gross insult is offered to the established worship. Even the jews are allowed the full exercise of their religion in the heart of Rome.t Many of the professors of the catholic religion openly avow the liberal sentiments of mildness, forbearance, and moderation. The famous pontiff above mentioned observes in his letters, that every impetuous zeal, which would bring down fire from heaven, excites only hatred. A good cause supports itself; so that religion needs only produce its proofs, its traditions, its works, its gentleness, to be respected. Christianity of itself overthrows every sect which may be inclined to schism, or which breathes a spirit of animosity." The regency of Milan has given a late instance of its general disposition to reduce the power of the church, by abolishing for ever the tribu

* More's Travels through Italy, vol. ii. pp. 158, 159,

* Guthrie, p. 626. . t Stiles's Sermon, p. 18.

| Ganganelli's Letters, vol. ii. p. 263.


nal of the inquisition in that duchy, and appropriating the estates for the support of an hospital of orphans.| The late pope was Pius the sixth, elected February 15. 1775. A modern traveller, who had a personal interview with this pontiff, observed that he laid a greater stress on the ceremonious part of religion. than his predecessor Ganganelli; and performed all the religious functions of his office in the most solemn manner, not only on public and extraordinary occasions, but also in the most common acts of devotion. Before he was chosen pope, he was considered as a firm believer in all the tenets of the Romish church, and a scrupulous observer of all its injunctions and ceremonials." He is represented to be a friend to the jesuits, and it is supposed that if the house of Bourbon would have consented, he would have restored the order to its former lustre. However, we are informed that a translation of the new testament into Italian was published at Florence in

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... + There are about nine thousand of that unfortunate nation at presen in Rome, the lineal descendants of those brought captive by Titus from


# It is said that there has been a reformation in faith, as well as discipline, long, though secretly, gaining ground in the church of Rome: and the

enlightened members of that church

now reject some of those doctrines

which appear to protestants contrary to scripture and reason. See Annual
Register for 1786. - -
* . • $ Ganganelli's Letters, vol. ii. p. 130,

| Annual Register for 1775.
‘I More's Travels through Italy, vol. ii. p. 151.

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