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great hopes of a considerable incipient change in the minds of the French ; and, if authorities may be relied on, to attract considerable sums to that country in support of the catholic religion : however, it soon appeared that the greater part of the congregation were actuated by no better motives than curiosity, or even ridicule; and the places of worship soon became deserted. Paine had very little better success than the Roman Catholic party. The sect of theophilanthropists never extended beyond Paris; at least not in any degree to deserve mention ; and there it has ever been confined to a few unimportant, or, as they have been called, Quakerly individuals. -—In fine : one of the most striking features in the French character, from the commencement of the revolution to the present time, has been a total indifference to, or rather rooted contempt of religion of every sect and party; and this prejudice has been purely spontaneous: for, from the first, the zeal of the sans cullottes, against every thing generally held sacred, has even outstripped that of the philosophers, their leaders. No force can be alleged : for,

provided a man does not dip himself in political and counter-revolutionary intrigues, he may safely profess and practise any religion which he shall chuse, and may publish it, and recommend it to the people unmolested. Some religious books, in consequence, have been published; but they have met with even less attention than infidel publications are wont to do in that country. It has been observed that the elderly people in France have rather relaxed in their devotions, and that the difficulty is so great in educating in the belief and profession of the christian religion in a country almost universally infidel, that the attempt begins to be given up, and in every part is absolutely impracticable.” Since the above account was written, we are informed, that in Languedoc an earnest desire has been expressed to have protestant clergymen sent amongst them ; and that there are evidences that some such are labouring with great zeal in Alsace, in connexion with the society at Basil.t The following contains the most correct account which could be obtained of the present state of the Roman Catholic religion in France.

* London Monthly Magazine, for 1799, vol. vii. pp. 129, 130.

t Missionary Magazine, for November, 1800, B b b

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The Roman Catholic is still the predominant religion in France; and the people have been unanimous in inviting their priests to return, and have received those who have returned with great affection: they appear now publicly and unmolested, even in their former dress. The French constitution of the clergy, after having been made the handle of a most cruel persecution, is now buried among the rubbish of the different constitutions, to which Buonaparte

put an end by the late revolution. The clergy is comprehended in the state law, which allows all the emigrants to return who have not carried arms against France, on condition they will make a promise of fidelity to the present constitution before the prefect of the department, remaining, however, under the particular inspection of government during the war, and a whole year after; therefore they are no more subject to the pain of death.*

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* The compiler of the View of Religions was favoured with this information, April, 1801, by Dr, Matignon, who now officiates at the Roman Catholic church in Boston.

f The synod of Dort, held in 1618, made the strictest notion of predestination an essential article in the Dutch church. None but Calvinists hold any employment of trust or profit. This synod was succeeded by a very eraud Brandt's History of the

severe persecution of the Arminians.

Reformation in the Low Countries.

See

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bers of the Grecian church; to which add many thousand jews.-There is at present, notwithstanding the rigid placards against the Roman Catholics and Socinians, a prevailing spirit of candour and catholicism among the different denominations. The ministers of the gospel belonging to the dominant church are maintained by the civil magistrate; those of the dissenters by their own churches, who have acquired funds for various purposes, by gifts, testaments, legacies, and donations of private men. Deism, in the worst sense of the word, is not common in this country. Few men who love to be called philosophers: some profligates and boys constitute this class.” Such is the liberal toleration allowed by the government of Holland, that scarcely a religious community is to be named which has not some place of public worship in Amsterdam. The Portuguese synagogue is perhaps the noblest temple, in which the jewish worship has been celebrated since the dispersion of that people. It is a lofty, spacious building, fitted for the purposes of religion, according to the ordinances of the

Mosaic law, and containing also apartments for the use of the rabbins, who daily attend to expound the hebrew law and the talmud. The jews of Germany and Holland, whose creed varies from that of their Portuguese brethren, have also a noble synagogue ; and in different quarters of the city there are other temples where the rites of the hebrew worship are celebrated. The number of jews in Amsterdam. is supposed to amount to eighty thousand. The late revolution in government has not produced any changes in the ecclesiastical policy of the United Provinces. The ministers of the established church, that of the reformer of Geneva, though they are almost without exception, attached to the old government, and consequently hostile to the new, continue to receive their regular salaries from the state, and perform unmolested the duties of their sacred functions. The church

es, and other places dedicated

to pious uses, are all attended on days of public worship. The sabbaths are kept in Amsterdam with becoming solemnity; and there is a general attention paid to religious subjects in most parts of Holland. See Fell's Tour to the Batavian Republic, published 1801. There were in the seven provinces, previously to the French invasion, one thousand five hundred and seventynine pastors of the established church, ninety of the Walloon church, eight hundred Roman Catholics, fifty-three Lutheran, forty-three Arminian, and three hundred and twelve Baptist preachers.” The Dutch opened a church in the city of Batavia in 1621, and from hence ministers and assistants were educated for the purpose of missions, and sent into the east, where thousands embraced the christian religion at Formosa, Java, &c. There are churches at Ceylon, Sumatra, and Amboyna. In Batavia there are four Calvinistic churches, and several places of worship for different religions. Of late, since their sufferings from the French invasion, we are informed that many have united at Rotterdam and Friesland, for the purpose of extending the

* Extract of a letter from a gentleman of character in Holland to his friend in America, written before the invasion of Holland by France.

gospel among the heathen.t A new sect of jews is established at Amsterdam, whose followers are daily increasing. It differs from others, by rejecting all those rites which have been introduced since the Mosaic law into the jewish religion. The founder and professor of this sect is a jew of considerable talents, and of an enlightened mind. Towards the close of the last year the difference of religious opinions caused a schism in the synagogues of Amsterdam. As the new jewish sect abolished all the usages with which the rabbins loaded the law of Moses, the heads of the synagogues applied to the Batavian magistrates for assistance, hoping by their interposition to bring back the separatists into the old society. But no attention was paid to their application, because it militated against the principles of toleration ; and a complete schism ensued. More than a hundred families . joined the reformers, and have now a separate synagogue.[

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* Zimmermann, p. 186.

# Monthly Magazine for August, 1800,

f Missionary Magazine.
§ Guthrie, p, 485,

A great number of the religious houses founded in the Austrian Netherlands, both in the cities and country, are now dissolved. While the religious, who inhabited these convents, are invited to enter into the world, monasteries are open for the reception of those among them who chuse to pass the remainder of their days in those observances to

which they have been long accustomed. The religious of both sexes have, for the most part, entered again into the world. A part of the estates of the dissolved monasteries is set apart for the religious who enter again into the world ; the remainder is destined for public works which are benecial to the state."

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GERMANY.

SINce the year 1555, the three following denominations of christians are the established religions of this empire. The Roman Catholic, the Lutheran, and Calvinistic, generally called the reformed religion. The first prevails in the south of Germany, the Lutheran in the north, and the reformed near the Rhine. In the subsequent civil wars, which were chiefly on account of religion, the rights of those rival religions, as established by the religious peace of 1555, had undergone great alterations, whenever the provinces had changed masters; and the confusion arising from the claims of the oppressed parties, and from the encroachments of the victorious. were become extreme. It was at length settled by the peace of

* Shaw's History of the Austrian Netherlands. f Zimmermanu, pp. 123,824. '

Westphalia, that the religion of the different states should remain as it had been in the year 1624, which is on that account called the definitive year. According to this agreement, the sovereign is obliged to leave each of those religions established, or tolerated; yet the right of correcting abuses in the public worship was reserved to him. There are likewise in the empire sectaries of various denominations. The Roman Catholic church acknowledges the supremacy of the pope; and in consequence of an agreement between the Germanic church and the holy see, the latter acquired the right of confirming all the prelates of the empire. Their superior clergy consists of eight archbishops, forty bishops, and many ab

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