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and by degrees many of them settled in gross Antinomianism. T Such are the principles which have found place amongst the descendents of the o At the same time, owever, there have been some (and a goodly number too) of each of the three denominations, who have adhered both to the doctrine and spirit of their forefathers. While relying for salvation on the free grace of the Father, the atonement of the Son, and the sanctifying influences of the holy Spirit, they have proved the efficacy of their principles by their concern to be holy in all manner of conversation. The Arian controversy, which in the early part of the last century was agitated amongst the dissenters, is supposed to have been not a little injurious to the prevalence of vital religion in that body. Complaints were soon after heard of the decline of the dissenting interest. About this time they were provoked to jealousy by several eminent men being raised up in the established church; who, preaching the same doctrines which had been taught by the puritans and nonconformists, and which their descendants seem

* Neal's History of the Puritans,

ed disposed to lay aside as obsolete, became not a little popular among the serious part of dissenters themselves. This was the more extraordinary, as the community to which they still adhered had for some time been growing more and more corrupt, and was in a manner given up, as a kind of Nazareth, from which no good thing could come. This description of men, however, have gone on to increase, together with a new denomination of semi-dissenters, which have arisen in a measure from their labours, so as to occasion in reality a new distinction in the dissenting body. Those who continue to treat the doctrine of the puritans and nonconformists with neglect, have still to complain of the decline of the dissenting interest : but those who believe and preach those doctrines, and rejoice in their progress, whether as taught in the establishment or out of it, have in general but very few such complaints to make. It is remarkable, that while a certain description of dissen ters are enquiring the reasons why the dissenting interest declines, a certain description of clergymen are enquiring the reasons why it increases **

De Laune's Plea for the Nonconfor

mists. Palmer's Nonconformists' Memorial. Backus's History of the New

England Baptists, vol. i.]

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QUAKERS. See Friends. QUARTODECIMANI, a denomination in the second century; so called because they maintained that the festival of easter was always to be celebrated, conformably to the custom of the jews, on the fourteenth day of the moon of March, whatever day of the month that happened to be.” QUIETISTS, the followers of Michael de Molinus, a Spanish priest who flourished in the seventeenth century. They were so called from a kind of absolute rest and inaction, which the soul is supposed to be in when arrived at that state of perfection which they call the unitive life.t The principles maintained by this denomination are as follow : That the whole of religion consists in the present calm and tranquillity of a mind removed from all extetnal and finite things and centered in God, and in such a pure love of the supreme

Being as is independent on all prospect of interest or reward. For, say they, the primitive disciples of Christ were all of them inward and spiritual ; and when Jesus Christ said to them, It is erpedient for you that I go away, for if I go not away the Comforter will not come unto you, he intended thereby to draw them off from that which was sensible though very holy, and to prepare their hearts to receive the fulness of the holy Spirit, which he looked upon as the one thing necessary. To prove that our love to the Deity must be disinterested, they allege that the Lord hath made all things for himself, as saith the scripture; and it is for his glory that he wills our happiness. Our happiness is only a subordinate end which he has made relative to the last and great end, which is his glory. To conform therefore to the great end of our creation, we must

prefer God to ourselves, and

* Broughton, vol. ii. p. 307.

* Lady Guion, a woman of fashion in France, who was born in 1648, was a warm advocate of those principles. She asserted that the means of arriving at this perfect love, are prayer and the self-denial enjoined in the gospel. Prayer she defines to be neither a sweet sensation, nor the charm of an inflamed imagination, nor an abstracted speculative reasoning, but the entire bent of the soul towards its divine origin.

# Fenelon, the amiable archbishop of Cambray, favoured the sentiments of this lady in a publication, entitled, “The Maxims of the Saints.” The distinguishing tenet in his theology was the doctrine of the disinterested love of God for his own excellencies, independent of his relative benevo‘lence: an important feature also in the theological system of Madam Guign, and the Mystics . See Life of Lady Guion, in two volumes, octavo : also Life of Fenelon, by the Chevalier Ramsay.

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not desire our own happiness but for his glory; otherwise we shall go contrary to his order. As the perfections of the Deity are intrinsically amiable, it is our glory and perfection to go out of ourselves, to be lost and absorbed in the pure love of infinite beauty." See Mystics.

QUINTILIANS, a denomination which appeared in Phrygia about the year 189. They derived their name from their prophetess Quintilia. Their distinguishing tenet was,

ANTERS, a denomination which arose in the year 1645. They set up the light of nature under the name of Christ in men. With regard to the church, scripture, ministry, &c., their sentiments were the same with the Seekers. See Seekers. REMONSTRANTS. See Arminians. ROGEREENS, so called from John Rogers, their chief leader. They appeared in New England about the year 1677. The principal distinguishing tenet of this denomination was, that worship performed the first day of the week was a species of idola

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try which they ought to oppose. In consequence of this they used a variety of measures to disturb those who were assembled for public worship on the Lord's day.S

ROMAN CATHOLICS, a name given to the papists, because the bishop of Rome is not only styled supreme, but occumenical, or universal bishop. See Papists.

ROSECRUSIANS, a name given to those in the seventeenth century who blended the doctrines of religion with the secrets of chemistry. Their sentiments were similar with those of the Behmenists.]| See Behmenists.

* Mosheim, vol. iv. p. 388. Broughton, vol. ii. p. 309, Cambray on

Pure Love, pp. 131–138. # History of Religion, vol. iv.

: Callamy's Abridgment of Baxter's History, vol. i. p. 101.

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ady Guion's Letters, p. 167. Broughton, vol. ii. p. 310.

| Moshéun, vol. iv, p.266,

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ABELLIANS, a denomi

nation which arose in the third century. They derived their name from Sabellius, an African bishop, or presbyter, who taught that there is but one person in the Godhead; and in confirmation of this doctrine he made use of a comparison. He said, that as man, though composed of body and soul, is but one person; so God, though he is Father, Son, and holy Ghost, is but one person. The Sabellians, upon their master's principles, made the Word and the holy Spirit to be only virtues, emanations, or functions, of the Deity; and held that he, who in heaven is the Father of all things, descended into a virgin, became a child, and was born of her as a Son; and that, having accomplished the mystery of our salvation, he diffused himself on the apostles in tongues of fire, and then was denominated the holy Ghost. They resembled God to the sun, the illuminative virtue or quality whereof was the Word, and its warming virtue the holy Spirit. The Word, they taught, was darted like a divine ray, to accomplish the work of redemption; and that, being re-ascended to heaven,

* Broughton, vol. ii.

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p. 318, Mosheim, vol. i. p. 244. .

Waterland on the Trinity, p. 385. # History of Religion, vol. iv. See.Saeophori.

church in that country; but being charged with a design of subverting the national covenant, and sapping the foundation of all national establishments of religion, was expelled by the synod from the church of Scotland. His sentiments were fully explained in a tract published at that time, entitled, “ The testimony of the king of martyrs,” and which is preserved in the first volume of his works. In consequence of Mr. Glas's expulsion, his adherents formed themselves into churches, conformable in their institution and discipline to what they apprehended to be the plan of the first churches recorded in the new testament. Soon after the year 1755, Mr. Robert Sandeman, an elder in one of these churches in Scotland, published a series of Letters, addressed to Mr. James Hervey, occasioned by his “Theron and Aspasio,” in which he endeavours to shew that his notion of .faith is contradictory to the scripture account of it, and could only serve to lead men professedly holding the doctrines called Calvinistic to establish their own righteousness, upon their frames, feelings, and acts of faith. In these letters Mr. Sandeman attempts to prove that justifying faith is no more than a simple belief

of the truth, or the divine testimony passively received by the understanding; and that this divine testimony carries in itself sufficient ground of hope to every one who believes it, without any thing wrought in us, or done by us, to give it a particular direction to ourselves.

- Some of the “popular preachers,” as they were called, had taught that it was of the essence of faith to believe that Christ is ours: but Mr. Sandeman contended that that which is believed in true faith is the truth, and what would have been the truth though we had never believed it. They dealt largely in calls and invitations to repent and believe in Christ, in order to forgiveness: but he rejects the whole of them, maintaining that the gospel contained no offer but that of evidence, and that it was merely a record or testimony to be credited. They had taught that though acceptance with God, which ineluded the forgiveness of sins, was merely on account of the imputed righteousness of Christ; yet that none was accepted of God, or forgiven, till he repented of his sin, and received Christ as the only Saviour: but he insists that there is acceptance with God, through Christ, for sinners

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