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determine any thing dogmatically, concerning the state ps departed souls.-(6.) They sometimes defer the baptism of their children till they are three, four, five, or ten years of age.”—(7.) The chism, or baptismal unction, immediately follows the immersion of baptism. The priest anoints the person baptized in the principal parts of the body, with an ointment consecrated with many curious circumstances for that purpose by a bishop : this chrism is called the unction with ointment. Extreme unction is called the consecration with holy oil. This chrism is a mystery peculiar to the Greek communion, and holds the place of confirmation in that of the Roman: it is styled the scal of the gift of the holy Ghost.— (S.) TLey insist that the sa
crament of the Lord's supper ought to be administered in both kinds: t and they give the sacrament to children immediately after baptism — (9.) f They exclude confirmation and extreme unction
out of the seven sacraments.
—(10.) They deny auricular confession to be a divine precept, and say it is only a positive institution of the church. Confession and absolution constitute this mystery $ in the Greek church, in which penance does not make a necessary part.—(11.) They do not pay any religious homage to the eucharist.—(12.) They administer the communion to the laity both in sickness and health.-(13.) They do not admit of images in bass-relief, or embossed work ; but use painting and sculpture in silver—(14.) They permit their * Their regular, or monastic clergy, are never allowed to marry.
* This is the custom of the Georgians, who are a part of the Greek church, The Greeks perform baptisin by dipping the person three times under water distinctly, in the name of the Father, Son, and holy Ghost.
f The napkin which is spread upon the holy table must be consecrated by a bishop, and have some small particles of the relics of a martyr mixed in the web, without which the euchartst cannot Le administered.
# The last sacrament of the Greek church, is that of the holy oil, or
euchalaion, which is not confined to persons in the last extremity, like the extreme unction of the Roman church; but is administered, if required, to devout persons upon the slightest malady. . Seven priests are required to administer this sacrament regularly, and it cannot be administered at all by less than three. After the oil is solemnly consecrated, each priest, in his turn, anoints the sick person, and prays for his recovery. § Sacraments are called mysteries in the Greek church. By the Greeks, a mystery is defined to be a ceremony, or act, appointed by God, in which be giveth, or signifieth his grace ; and of the seven which they celebrate, four are to be received by all christians; viz, baptism, the baptismal unction, the eucharist, and confession, None of the other are considered as obligatory upon all. See Supplement to the Encyclopædia, vol. i. p. 487.
secular clergy to marry once; but never twice, unless they renounce their function, and
become laymen.”--(15.) They
condemn all fourth marriages. The invocation of Saints, and transubstantiation, alike received by the Greek and Latin churches. They observe a number of holidays, and keep four fasts in the year more solemn than the rest; of which the fast in lent, before easter, is the chief. The service of the Greek church is too long and complicated to be particularly described in this work: the greatest part consists in psalms and hymns.—Five orders of priesthood belong to the Greek church; viz. bishops, priests, deacons, sub-deacons, and readers; which last includes singers, &c. The episcopal order is distinguished by the titles of metropolitan, archbishops, and bishops. The head of the Greek church, the patriarch of Constantinople is elected by twelve bishops, who reside nearest that famous capital; but the right of confirming this election belongs only to the Turkish emperor. The power of this prelate is very extensive. He not only calls councils by his own authority to decide controversies and direct the affairs of the church, but, with the
permission of the emperor, he administers justice, and takes cognizance of civil cases among the members of his communion. The other patriarchs are of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria, who are nominated by the patriarch of Constantinople. Besides the power of nominating the other three patriarchs, and all episcopal dignitaries, the patriarch of Constantinople enjoys a most extensive jurisdiction ; comprising the churches of Anatolia, Greece, Wallachia, Moldavia, and the islands of the Archipelago.— For the administration of ecclesiastical affairs, a synod, convened monthly, is composed of the heads of the church resident in Constantinople. In this assembly the patriarch of Constantinople presides with those of Antioch and Jerusalem, and twelve archbishops. In regard to discipline and worship, the Greek church has the same division of the clergy into regular and secular, the same spiritual jurisdiction of bishops and their officials, the same distinction of ranks and offices with the church of Rome. There is a branch of the Greek church that, though
joined in communion of doc
trine and worship with the
patriarch of Constantinople, refuse to receive his legatees, or to obey his edicts. This division is governed by its own laws and institutions, under the jurisdiction of spiritual rulers, who are independent on all foreign authority. The Greek church comprehends in its bosom a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Lydia, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Silicia, and Palestine; Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem ; the whole of the Russian empire in Europe; great part of Syberia in Asia; Astracan, Casan, and Georgia.
ATTEMISTS, a Dutch
denomination which arose in the seventeenth century. They derive their name from Pontium Van Hattem, a minister in the province of Zealand. He interpreted the Calvinistic doctrine concerning absolute decrees, so as to deduce from it the system of a fatal and uncontrollable necessity. Having laid down this principle to account for the origin of all events, he denied the difference between moral good and evil, and the cor
It is asserted by Dallaway, in his account of Constantinople, ancient and modern, which was published in 1797, that all orders of the Greek clergy.inferior to bishops are permitted to marry. Celibaey and the assumption of monastic habits, are indispensably requisite in those who are candidates for the mitre.
The riches of some of the Greek churches and monasteries, in jewels, particularly pearls, in plate, and in the habits of the clergy, are very great, and reckoned not much inferior to those in Roman. Catholic countries.”
* * Dallaway's History of Constantinople, pp. 378,379. Ricaut's State
of the Greek Church. King's History of the
Father Simon's Religion of the Eastern Nations, pp. 5–8. Thevenot's
History of Religion, vol. vi. pp. 251–253. Encyclopaedia, vo
- - -
See Part the Second.
ruption of human nature. Hence he concluded that mankind were under no sort of obligation to correct their manners, to improve their minds, or to endeavour after a regular obedience to the divine laws : that the whole of religion consisted not in acting, but in suffering ; and that all the precepts of Jesus Christ are reducible to this single one—that we bear with cheerfulness and patience the events that happen to us through the divine will, and
reek Church, pp.11–134.
iii. p. 127.
make it our constant and only study to maintain a permanent tranquillity of mind. This denomination also affirmed, that Christ had not satisfied the divine justice, nor made an expiation for the sins of men by his death and sufferings; but had only signified to us, by his mediation,
that there was nothing in us.
that could offend the Deity. They maintained that this was Christ's manner of justifying his servants, and presenting them blameless before the tribunal of God.” They also taught that God does not punish men for their sins, but by their sins.# HELSAITES, a denomination which arose in the second century. They denied some parts of the old and new testament; did not own Paul to be an apostle; and thought it an indifferent thing, if, in persecution, they denied the faith in words. They received a certain book, which they said came down from heaven, and contained their doctrine.f HENRICIANS, a denomination in the twelfth century, founded by Henry, a monk. He rejected the baptism of infants, censured with severity
the licentious manners of the clergy, and treated the festivals and ceremonies of the church with the utmost contempt. § HERACLEON ITES, a branch of the Valentinians in the second century. They
derived their name from He
racleon, who maintained that the world was not the immediate production of the Son of God; but that he was only the occasional cause of its being created by the Demiurgus. The Heracleonites denied the authority of the prophecies of the old testament, maintaining that they were mere random sounds in the air; and that John the baptist was the only true voice which directed to the Messiah.| HERMOGENIANS, a denomination which arose towards the close of the second century; so denominated from Hermogenes, a painter by profession. He regarded matter as the fountain of all evil, and could not persuade himself that God had created it from nothing by an almighty act of his will. Therefore he maintained that the world, with whatever it contains, as also the souls of men and other spirits, were formed by
* This opinion was peculiar to the Hattemists, and distinguished them from the Verschorists.
* Mosheim, vol. iv. pp. 553, 554. § Mosheim, vol. ii. p. 448.
# Athenian Oracle, vol. ii. p. 128, | Broughton, vol. i. p. 484,
the Deity from an uncreated and eternal mass of corrupt matter.” HERRENHUTTERS. See * Moravians. `s HETEROUSIANS, a name given to one of the Arian divisions. See Arians. HIERACITES, a denomination in the third century; so called from their leader Hierax, a philosopher and magician of Egypt. Hierax maintained that the principal object of Christ's office and ministry, was the promulgation of a new law more severe and perfect than that of Moses. Hence he concluded that the use of flesh, wine, wedlock, and of other' things agreeable to the outward senses, which had been permitted under the Mosaic dispensation, was absolutely prohibited and abrogated by Christ. He excluded from the kingdom of heaven children who died before they had arrived to the use of reason; and that upon the supposition that God was bound to administer the rewards of futurity to those only who had fairly finished their victorious conflict with the body and its lusts : he maintained also that Melchisedec was the * Mosheim, vol. i. p. 190.
holy Ghost. His disciples taught, that the Word, or Son of God, was contained in the Father, as a little vessel in a great one; whence they had the name of Metangismonites, from the greek word postayyid wovoo, which signifies contained in a vessel. Hierax also denied the doctrine of the resurrection of the body.i.
HOFFMANISTS, those who espoused the sentiments of Daniel Hoffman, professor in the university of Helmstadt, who in the year 1598 taught that the light of reason, even as it appears in the writings of Plato and Aristotle, is adverse to religion; and that
the more the human under
standing is cultivated by philosophical study, the more perfectly is the enemy supplied with weapons of defence.; HOMOIAUSIANS, a name given to a branch of the Arians. See Arians. HOPKINSIANS, so called from the Rev. Samuel Hopkins, D. D., pastor of the first congregational church at Newport; who in his sermons and tracts has made several additions to the sentiments first advanced by the celebrated Jonathan Edwards, late president of New Jersey college. §
p. 246. Broughton, vol. i. p. 493.
f Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. ii. p. 506, $This denomination suppose that this eminent divine not only illustrated and confirmed the main doctrines of Calvinism, but brought the , whole system to a greater degree of consistency and perfection than any who had one before him; and they profess only to pursue the same design, of still.
urther perfecting the saune system.