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pride, but which they now strove to could not be mistaken of a predeterdishonor. This intense feeling of aver- mined purpose to defy and resist the sion found expression in a universal cry Federal authority. for the capture of Fort Sumter. Plans A more resolute tone had, in the mean of all kinds were devised to effect the while, been assumed by the President. purpose. Some proposed to float down No longer exclusively under the control rafts, loaded with burning tar-barrels, of traitorous advisers, he ventured to and thus smoke out the United States speak more authoritatively. The order garrison ; some suggested bribing the for the removal of the cannon from the soldiers ; some thought that a floating Alleghany arsenal to Southern forts, battery might be built with breastworks which had so greatly stirred the indignaof cotton-bales, behind which sharp- tion of the citizens of Pittsburg, was reshooters could post themselves and pick voked, and a feeble attempt* made to off each man in the fort ; some hit upon sustain Major Anderson and his little the expedient of filling bomb-shells with garrison at Fort Sumter. prussic acid to throw among the troops The steamship Star of the West-a and poison them, while others recom- merchant vessel chartered by the Govmended a more protracted, if not more ernment-having taken on board two Christian method, of cutting off their hundred and fifty artillerists and masupplies and starving them to death.* rines, and a supply of stores and ammu
In the mean time, the example of nition, sailed at night for Charles- Jan. South Carolina in taking possession of ton, though she cleared for New 5. the Federal property, was being fol- Orleans and Havana. She thus stole lowed by other States. Fort Pulaski away in the darkness and under false was seized by the troops of Georgia, by pretences, with the hope that she might order of the Governor, and even Gov- reach her destination and effect her purernor Ellis, of North Carolina, dispatched pose of reinforcing Major Anderson the troops of the State to take possession without exciting the suspicion of his of Fort Macon, at Beaufort, the forts at besiegers. Wilmington, and the United States ar- After a prosperous passage, the steamsenal at Fayetteville. At Mobile, too, er having previously extinguished all her Fort Morgan and the arsenal, containing lights, lest she should be seen, arrived six stands of arms, 1,500 barrels of at Charleston Bar at half-past one Jan. powder, 300,000 rounds of musket car- o'clock in the morning. Here it 9. tridges, and other munitions of war, was necessary to check her speed and were seized by the secessionists. These grope her way cautiously, for there were acts of undisguised hostility, though they no lights in the light-houses to guide preceded the meeting of the conventions | her in her dangerous course. She conin those States, gave an indication that
O The secretary of the interior, Thompson, resigned in w South Carolinian
tinued, however, to move on slowly, the minutes. In the mean time, the shots lead being thrown at every moinent from Morris Island came thick and fast. until four o'clock, when a light was seen Several passed clear over the steamer, through the haze of the early dawn. one between the smoke-stack and walkThis was supposed to be a signal from ing-beam of the engine, one within an Fort Sumter, and the ship having steered ace of the rudder, and another struck in that direction, hove to, to wait for the ship just abaft the fore-rigging and daylight.
stove in the planking. As the day broke, a Charleston steam- " At the same time,” says McGowan, er, the General Clinch, was discovered, the captain, in his report, “ there was a which, as soon as she caught sight of the movement of two steamers from near Star of the West, began to burn blue Fort Moultrie, one of them towing a and red lights, as signals to the batteries. schooner (I presume an armed schooner), Those on guard at Morris Island were at with the intention of cutting us off. Our once on the alert and at their posts be- | position now became rather critical, as fore the orders could be given them to we had to approach Fort Moultrie within prepare for action. They expected at three-quarters of a mile before we could every moment a volley from Fort Sum- keep away for Fort Sumter. A steamer ter as they themselves got ready to fire approaching us, with an armed schooner at the approaching steamer. The Star in tow, and the battery on the island of the West, too, was preparing for a firing at us all the time, and having no warm reception. The soldiers were cannon to defend ourselves from the atthrust below, and none allowed on deck tack of the vessels, we concluded that to but the crew. She, however, proceeded avoid certain capture or destruction we on her course, following in the wake of would endeavor to get to sea. Consethe little Charleston steamer, which quently we wore round and steered down steamed on, keeping about two miles the channel, the battery firing upon us ahead, and perseveringly sending off until the shot fell short." rockets and burning blue lights even Fort Sumter, in the mean time, had until after broad daylight.
"made no demonstration, except at the When the Star of the West had reached port-holes, where the guns were run out, within two miles of Fort Moultrie, and bearing on Morris Island.”* Major Anabout the same distance of Fort Sumter, derson, however, at once dispatched a the battery at Morris Island, from which letter to Governor Pickens, which, with the Palmetto flag was flying, opened fire. the answer and rejoinder, are here After the first shot the Star of the West given : hoisted a large American ensign at the “ To His EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR OF fore, in addition to the American flag
South CAROLINA. flying from the flagstaff. She, in spite “SiR : Two of your batteries fired of the fire, continued her course for ten
this morning on an unarmed vessel damage, cannot be regarded by the aubearing the flag of my Government. thorities of the State as indicative of As I have not been notified that war any other purpose than the coercion of has been declared by South Carolina the State by the armed force of the against the United States, I cannot but Government; special agents, therefore, think this a hostile act, committed with have been off the bar to warn approachout your sanction or authority. Under ing vessels, armed and unarmed, having that hope, I refrain from opening a fire troops to reinforce Fort Sumter aboard, on your batteries. I have the honor, not to enter the harbor. Special orders therefore, respectfully to ask whether have been given the commanders at the the above-mentioned act—one which I forts not to fire on such vessels until believe without parallel in the history a shot across their bows should warn of our country or any other civilized them of the prohibition of the State. government—was committed in obe- Under these circumstances the Star of dience to your instructions, and notify the West, it is understood, this morning you, if it is not disclaimed, that I regard attempted to enter the harbor with it as an act of war, and I shall not, after | troops, after having been notified she reasonable time for the return of my could not enter, and consequently she messenger, permit any vessel to pass was fired into. This act is perfectly within the range of the guns of my fort. justified by me. In order to save, as far as it is in my “In regard to your threat about vespower, the shedding of blood, I beg you sels in the harbor, it is only necessary will take due notification of my decision for me to say, you must be the judge of for the good of all concerned. Hoping, your responsibility. Your position in however, your answer may justify a the harbor has been tolerated by the further continuance of forbearance on authorities of the State, and while the my part, I remain, respectfully,
act of which you complain is in perfect "ROBERT ANDERSON." I consistency with the rights and duties Gov. Pickens, in reply, after describing of the State, it is not perceived how far the position of South Carolina toward the conduct you propose to adopt can the States, said that any attempt to send find a parallel in the history of any United States troops into Charleston country, or be reconciled with any other harbor, to reinforce the forts, would be purpose than that of your Government regarded as an act of hostility; and in imposing on the State the condition of a conclusion, added, “that any attempt to conquered province. reinforce the troops at Fort Sumter, or
“F. W. PICKENS." to retake and resume possession of the “ To His EXCELLENCY GOVERNOR PICKENS.
the waters of South Caro- "Sir: I have the honor to acknowllina which Major Anderson abandoned, edge the receipt of your communication, after spiking the cannon and doing other and say, that under the circumstances I
have deemed it proper to refer the whole North Carolina during his administration, matter to my Government, and intend I am directed to say that they, in comdeferring the course I indicated in my mon with the other forts, arsenals, and note this morning until the arrival from other property of the United States, Washington of such instructions as I are in the charge of the President, and may receive.
that if assailed, no matter from what "I have the honor also to express the quarter or under what pretext, it is his hope that no obstructions will be placed duty to protect them by all the means in the way, and that you will do me the which the law has placed at his disposal. favor of giving every facility for the de- | It is not his purpose to garrison the parture and return of the bearer, Lieu- forts to which you refer at present, tenant T. Talbot, who is directed to because he considers them entirely safe, make the journey.
| as heretofore, under the shelter of that “ROBERT ANDERSON.” law-abiding sentiment for which the There were other evidences, besides people of North Carolina have ever this well-intentioned, but humble and been distinguished. Should they, howfruitless attempt to reinforce Major ever, be attacked or menaced with Anderson, of an increased indisposition danger of being seized or taken from on the part of the Federal Govern- the possession of the United States, he ment to continue to yield unresistingly could not escape from his constitutional to the demands and encroachments of obligation to defend and preserve them. the secessionists. Under the patriotic The very satisfactory and patriotic asinspiration of the new secretary of war, surance given by your Excellency justiHolt, a more positive assertion of Fed- fies him, however, in entertaining the eral authority was assumed. Dignified confident expectation that no such conwords at least were spoken, if not effect- tingency will arise." ive measures taken, in vindication of the The cotton States, now, had got beGovernment. To the Governor of yond the influence of words however
orth Carolina, who, after restoring the fitly spoken, and had been so long asforts of that State to the authorities of sured of impunity, that they did not the United States, had asked if “it was hesitate in their career of insurrection. the purpose of the administration to Mississippi was the first to follow South coerce the Southern States ?" the sec- Carolina in seceding from the Jan. retary of war had responded somewhat | Union. The ordinance of seces- 9. equivocally, but still in words more sion was opposed only by fifteen memauthoritative than the Government of bers of the convention, and they resisted Buchanan had yet ventured to utter. but a day, when they, too, signed with
"In reply to your inquiry," wrote the the rest. Florida and Alabama Jan. secretary, “whether it is the purpose of immediately succeeded. In the lo the President to garrison the forts of former State the ordinance secession
was carried by a vote of sixty-two to lighted up by “patriotic candles,” thus seven. In the latter, though there was affording "a choice epicureanism of the reputable minority of thirty-nine triumph and rejoicing” to those excited members of the convention to oppose citizens as they “piled Ossas of insult the prevailing number of sixty-one, on Pelions of injury to Uncle Sam."* still the act of secession was hailed with On the passage of the secession ordiimmense enthusiasm. Judge Jones, of nance by Florida, her troops, joined by the United States District Court, an those of Alabama, seized upon Fort nounced with exulting emphasis, from Barrancas and the navy-yard at Jan. the windows of the court-room at Pensacola, and thus became pos- 14. Mobile, that the United States Court for sessed not only of important posts of the Southern District of Alabama was defence, but large supplies of ordnance, “adjourned forever.” A prodigal se ammunition, and stores. “Having no cessionist of the same city gave one means of resistance,” said the United hundred cords of wood for the use of States officer in command i the secession garrison in occupation of to the Government, “I surrendered and the Federal Fort Morgan, and proffered hauled down my slag.” The secessiontwenty negro men to labor on the works ists of Florida, themselves, telegraphed to defend the harbor against the United to their senators in Washington : “ This States.
move was in consequence of the GovernThe day was declared to be “the ment garrisoning Fort Pickens, which has wildest day of excitement in the annals before remained unoccupied.” “You of Mobile.” On receiving the news of will propose to the administration," they the simultaneous secession of Florida an added, with insolent dictation, “to reimmense crowd collected about the sume the status quo ante bellum, and we “secession pole” to witness the raising will immediately evacuate." of the “Southern flag,” which was Georgia was the next to adopt in conhoisted to the top amid the “shouts of vention the secession ordinance by Jan. the multitude and the thunders of can- a vote of two hundred and eight 19. non.” The “Mobile Cadets" paraded against eighty-nine. Some of the leadthe streets all day with the “splendid ing politicians of the State, as Alexflag, a most gorgeous banner,” which ander H. Stephens and Herschel V. had been presented to them by“sympa- Johnson, lately a candidate for Vicethetic ladies.” At night the houses President of the United States, opposed were illuminated so brilliantly, and tar- this hasty action, and emphatic manifestbarrels burnt so profusely, that “the ations of dislike were exhibited by many broad boulevard of Government Street of the people at being thus hurried became an avenue of light.” To crown out of the Union. The usual popular this exultant display of secession senti- demonstrations, however, followed the nient, the Federal custom-house was |