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business. He now became a thriving resisted all national recognition of practitioner, and was appointed solicitor slavery. of two of the banks.
Devoted to his professional pursuits, Being employed in 1837 in behalf of Mr. Chase avoided for a long time all a negro woman who was claimed to be a positive alliances with political parties, fugitive slave, Mr. Chase argued that but had voted sometimes with the DemCongress had not the right to impose ocrats, and at other times and more freupon State magistrates any duty or con- quently with the Whigs In 1841, howfer any power in such cases.
ever, he became one of the originators Again, soon after, while defending of the “ Liberty' party of Ohio, and was James E. Birny, who had been arrested the author of their address to the peofor harboring a negro slave, he held ple. In 1843 he was a member of the that slavery is local, and dependent for convention of this party which met at its legality upon State law, and that Buffalo. While one of a committee therefore a slave who made his escape nominated by said convention, he opinto Ohio became free, and might be posed the resolution, “to regard and harbored with impunity.
treat the third clause of the ConstituIn 1846, Mr. Chase, together with tion, whenever applied to the case of a William H. Seward, was defendant's fugitive slave, as utterly null and void, counsel in the Van Zandt case, before and consequently as forming no part of the Supreme Court of the United States. the Constitution of the United States, In an elaborate argument, he contended whenever we are called upon or sworn to that, by the ordinance of 1787, no fu- support it.” This resolution was accordgitive from service could be reclaimed ingly rejected by the committee, and not from Ohio unless there had been an es- reported, although it was afterward recape from one of the original States ; newed by its original mover, and adopted that it was the clear understanding of by the convention. When twitted in the framers of the Constitution, and of the United States Senate by Senator the people who adopted it, that slavery Butler, of South Carolina, for the menwas to be left exclusively to the dis- tal reservation seemingly sanctioned by posal of the several States, without this resolution, Chase responded : “I sanction or support from the National | have only to say, I never proposed the Government; and that the clause in the resolution ; I never would propose or Constitution relating to persons held to vote for such a resolution. I hold no service was one of compact, and con- doctrine of mental reservation. Every ferred no power of legislation on Con- man, in my judgment, should speak just gress.
as he thinks, keeping nothing back, here Other cases ensued in which Mr. or elsewhere."* Chase defended the same positions, and
The New American Cyclopedia. New York : D. thus became identified with those who | Appleton & Co
In 1845, a convention, at the sug- until 1852, when, upon the nomination gestion of Mr. Chase, met in Cincinnati, of Pierce, they accepted the platform of "all who, believing that whatever is of the Baltimore Convention, approving worth preserving in republicanism can of the compromise acts of 1850, and be maintained only by uncompromising denouncing the further agitation of the war against the usurpations of the slave question of slavery extension. Having power, and are therefore resolved to use abandoned his old allies, he gave in his all constitutional and honorable means adherence to the Independent Demoto effect the extinction of slavery within cratic Convention, assembled at Pittstheir respective States, and its reduction | burg in 1852, which adopted a manifesto to its constitutional limits in the United | mainly prepared by Mr. Chase. States.” The gathering was large, con- When the Nebraska bill agitated the sisting of two thousand delegates and country, and induced the formation of four thousand interested visiters. The the Republican party, Mr. Chase, findaddress—the main burden of which was ing its principles in consonance with his opposition to the extension of slavery, long established views, eagerly joined was written by Mr. Chase, and was it, and became one of its leaders. widely circulated. When the second In 1855, Mr. Chase was nominated as convention met, in 1847, Mr. Chase op- Governor of Ohio, and being elected, posed the making of Federal nomina- was inaugurated in January of the suctions, believing that the general agita- ceeding year. He gave proof, in his tion throughout the country in regard new office, of a moderation and discreto the Wilmot proviso would extend the tion which many were disposed to quesbasis of the movement against slavery tion, in consequence of his supposed extension, and afford a less restricted extreme opinions on slavery. At the foundation for a party.
close of his first term he was disposed In 1848, however, distrusting the to retire, but was so urgently pressed to Whig and Democratic parties, Mr. accept a re-nomination, that he was preChase again called a convention in fa- vailed upon and re-elected Governor. vor of free territory. It was largely After the expiration of his second attended, but it merged itself in the term he was again elected senator of National Convention, which met at Buf- the United States, but resigned his seat falo in August of the same year, and to accept his present position in the nominated Martin Van Buren for Pres-cabinet of Mr. Lincoln, of which he is ident. The Democratic party of Ohio considered not only one of the ablest, having now adopted the free-soil views | but firmest members. of Mr. Chase, he accepted their nom- Simon Cameron, a man of humble ination for the United States Senate, origin, successively a printer's apprenand in 1849 was elected. He continued tice, printer, journalist, a local politician, to act with the Democrats of his State a United States senator, and now the
secretary of war, was born in Penn- restricted experience of the business of sylvania. He has been for a long time state, he has the scope of view and one of the most influential men in that energy of action necessary to the chief State, and the success of the Republican of the naval department during a great party there was greatly indebted to his war. efforts. Wielding a large capital act- Montgomery Blair, a son of the vigively employed in railroads, mining orous Democratic journalist, Francis operations, and other active enterprises Preston Blair, the founder and editor of in Pennsylvania, he was enabled to ex- the Washington Globe, was born in
le influence, which was owing Kentucky. Like his father, he is a not less to his financial than to his valiant defender of the Republican political ability. His executive talents, cause, and is supposed to have been thoroughly exercised by his extensive one of the most emphatic of the cabbusiness relations, are calculated to inet to urge the full exercise of the make him an effective officer in the Federal authority in checking treason, busy department of which he is the as he is among the inost resolute in chief.
favor of vigorously waging war against Gideon Welles was originally a prin- rebellion. His energy of will and ter, and subsequently editor of the sanguineness of temperament render Hartford Times, in the skilful conduct him a spirited coadjutor of the execuof which he has acquired all his political tive in the stir of conflict ; but in the fame. His reputation had, however, quiet of peace, his fitness for office, and hardly extended beyond the limits of especially that practical one which he his native State of Connecticut, when holds, might be more questionable. he was called to a position in Lincoln's Edward Bates, the attorney-general, cabinet, at the earnest solicitation, it is was born in Goochland County, in believed, of his brother-in-law, Vice- Virginia, in 1791. Having been carePresident Hamlin. As the editor of the fully educated by a relative of high Hartford Times, he was considered one culture, he emigrated with a brother to of the most forcible exponents of the Missouri, where he began to practice Democratic policy. Warmly expressing law. He soon acquired eminence as a the doctrine of non-extension of slavery, jurist. Although he served in the he soon identified himself with the Re- Legislature of Missouri, and represented publican party, of which he was an that State in Congress, his life has been ardent supporter. He has frequently mostly devoted to the pursuits of his represented his State in its own Legisla- profession. In 1847, however, he was ture and Senate, but never in the Fed- a member of the convention which met eral councils. It may be doubted whe- at Chicago for the advancement of ther, with his reflective habits as a internal improvements, where he compolitical thinker and writer, and his manded attention by a brilliant speech