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services to the extent of four regiments, sake of humanity, we are for peace as aforesaid, to serve during a period of and reconciliation, and solemnly protest three months within the limits of Mary- against this war, and will take no part land, or for the defence of the capital of in it; therefore, the United States, to be subject under Resolved, That Maryland implores the conditions aforesaid, to the orders the President, in the name of God, to of the Commander-in-chief of the army cease this unholy war, at least until of the United States.

Congress assembles ; that Maryland de“Given under my hand and the great sires and consents to the recognition of seal of the State of Maryland, at the city the independence of the Confederate of Frederick, this 14th day of May, 1861. States. The military occupation of Ma“Thos. H. Hicks.” ryland is unconstitutional, and she pro

tests against it, though the violent inThe Legislature, too, was frightened terference with the transit of Federal into comparative propriety, and brought troops is discountenanced ; that the vinMay its refractory proceedings to a close dication of her rights be left to time and

14. by a sudden adjournment. The reason, and that a convention, under spirit of disaffection, however, which existing circumstances, is inexpedient." May prevailed, was made manifest by The last act of the Legislature of Ma

10. the adoption, a few days before, of ryland was to appoint two commissionthese resolutions :

ers to visit President Jefferson Davis, "Whereas the war against the Con two to visit President Lincoln, two to federate States is unconstitutional and visit Richmond, and two to visit Pennrepugnant to civilization, and will re- | sylvania. sult in a bloody and shameful overthrow The route through Baltimore to the of our institutions; and while recog- capital was now secured, and the Fed

obligations of Maryland to eral Government could claim its first the Union, we sympathize with the South great victory in the struggle for the asin the struggle for their rights for the sertion of its authority.





Increased Energy of the Government.-Augmenting force of Secession.-Progress of North Carolina to Secession.

Seizure of United States Mint and Arsenal.- Action of the Governor.--Convening of the Legislature.- Denunciation of the President's Proclamation.-Ordinance of Secession.- Union with the Confederate States.-Action of Arkansas.-Seizure of Federal Property.--Act of Secession.-Sanguine hopes entertained of Tennessee.- Union Sentiment in Tennessee.- A Vote against a Convention.-Disregarded by the Governor.-Legislature Convened. Military League with the Southern Confederacy.-Ratification of League.--Opposition in the Legislature.-Question submitted to the People.- Strange Contrast.-Arbitrary Action.- Pretended Submission to the Will of the People. - Apology of the Tennessee Legislature.-The strong Union Sentiment in Eastern Tennessee.- Description of East Tennessee.-Character of the Population.-Opposition to the Action of the Legislature.--A Convention called at Knoxville.-Its object. --The unavailing resistance in East Tennessce.-Ratification by the People of the State of the Ordinance of Secession.-Great Encouragement for the Union in Western Virginia. -Description of Western Virginia.-Geographical and Social Characteristics.-Whites and Blacks.-Free Labor.-Sympathy with the North. -Enterprise and Thrift.--Immense Resources.-Future Prospects. -Disputes with Eastern Virginia.- Difference of Interests.--Unequal Taxation.-Opposition to Secession.-Union Meetings.-Convention in Western Virginia – “New Virginia." -Action of the Convention. -An ardent Appeal for the Union.-Rallying to Arms. -Union Enthusiasm.-Union Military Companies. --Union Preachers. The first Encounter in Western Virginia.- A bloodless beginning of a Bloody War.


WHILE the Federal Government was States, was forced to surrender to the

asserting its authority with in- State authorities. At the same time the 1861.

creased energy and power, and the Governor of North Carolina called for Union sentiment of the North was daily thirty thousand volunteers, in addition strengthening, the Southern rebellion was to the regular militia, and ordered them augmenting with even greater force and to be ready at a moment's notice.

. North Carolina was passing! These acts, the purport of which through ihe various phases of defiance was obvious, were followed by April and spoliation of the General Govern the Governor's proclamation con- 26. ment which had marked the career of vening the Legislature. In this docuthe other slave States in their progressment he denounced President Lincoln's to secession. Her Governor had reso- proclamation and Secretary Cameron's lutely and contemptuously refused the requisition for seventy-five thousand call of the President for the State's quota troops, the “high-handed act of tyranof troops for the defence of the Union. nical outrage,” the object of which was April The United States Branch Mint “the violent subversion of the liberties

21. had been seized and held by a of a free people constituting a large military force under his command, and part of the whole population of the April on the next day the Federal arsenal United States; it is not only,” the Gov22. at Fayetteville, filled with muni- ernor added, “in violation of all contions of war belonging to the United stitutional law, utter disregard of every



sentiment of humanity and Christian ereignty, the State accepts the Constitucivilization, and conceived in a spirit of tion of the 'Confederate States of Ameraggression unparalleled by any act of ica,' and will enter into federal association recorded history, but is a direct step with them, when admitted in due form. toward the subjugation of the whole North Carolina thus gave in her adherSouth, and the conversion of a free re-ence to the new confederacy, and joined public, inherited from our fathers, into a in the armed combination to dissolve the military despotism, to be established by old Union. worse than foreign enemies on the ruins Arkansas was the next to follow. She of our once glorious Constitution of began, too, with spoliation. At April equal rights.” He closed by an appeal Napoleon, the Federal dépot was 22. to the fidelity of the people of North seized by order of the Governor, and Carolina, to the "sovereign” authority military supplies belonging to the United of their State. “I furthermore ex States, consisting of one hundred and hort,” he said, "all good citizens fifty thousand ball cartridges, a hundred throughout the State to be mindful that Maynard rifles, two hundred cavalry their first allegiance is due to the sover saddles, and five hundred sabres, were eignty which protects their homes and appropriated by the State. Fort Smith, dearest interests, as their first service is too, which had cost the Federal Govdue for the sacred defence of their ernment over three hundred thousand hearths, and of the soil which holds the dollars, was forced to surrender. The graves of our glorious dead. United State troops upon taking possession April action in defence of the sovereignty of | raised the Confederate flag amid 25. North Carolina, and of the rights of the the firing of cannon and the exulting Suuth, becomes now the duty of all.” cheers of the people, who gave shouts May In three weeks after, a convention of applause for the citizen soldiery of

20. “declared and ordained that the Arkansas, its Governor, and for Jefferordinance adopted by the State of North son Davis. Carolina, in the Convention of 1789, These usual preliminaries of disrupwhereby the Constitution of the United tion were soon followed by the May States was ratified and adopted, and act of secession from the Federal 7. also all acts and parts of acts of the | Union, the adoption of the Constitution General Assembly ratifying and adopting of the Confederate States, and the adamendments to the said Constitution, mission of the State as another member are hereby repealed, rescinded, and of the Southern Confederacy. abrogated.”

Tennessee, the last to attach her It was then “declared and ordained" fortunes to the chances of the new conthat, the union with the United States federacy, it was fondly hoped by the being dissolved, and North Carolina in North would have clung to the old full possession of the “rights of sov- Union. Though her Governor, who was


known to be in league with the Confed- of said States, enters into the following erates, had responded so defiantly to the temporary convention, agreement, and President's requisition for troops, there military league with the Confederate was yet believed to be a loyalty to the States, for the purpose of meeting Federal Government so strong, particu pressing exigencies affecting the comlarly in the eastern part of the State, mon rights, interests, and safety of said that it could counteract the machinations States and said Confederacy: of those political leaders of Tennessee First. Until said State shall become who were striving to wrest her from the a member of said Confederacy, accordUnion. This belief was encouraged by ing to the Constitutions of both powers, the vote of the State on the question of the whole military force and military holding a convention for the considera- operations, offensive and defensive, of tion of the policy of seceding. By a said State in the impending conflict with large majority, the people of Tennessee the United States shall be under the decided against the convention. The chief control and direction of the PresiGovernor, though thus rebuked by this dent of the Confederate States upon the expression of popular will, gave it no same basis, principles, and footing as if heed, but persisted in his determination said State were now and during the into force the State out of the Union. terval a member of said Confederacy; He accordingly convened the Legislature said force, together with that of the

majority of which accorded with Confederate States, to be employed for him in sentiment—for the purpose of the common defence. accomplishing indirectly what seemed " Second. The State of Tennessee will, impracticable through the direct action upon becoming a member of said Conof the suffrage of the people. The federacy, under the permanent ConstituLegislature having met, both Houses tion of said Confederate States, if the May passed at once, in secret session, same shall occur, turn over to the said

1. a joint resolution authorizing the Confederate States all the public propGovernor to enter into a military league erty, naval stores, and munitions of war with the Confederate States. Three of which she may then be in possession, commissioners were accordingly ap- acquired from the United States, on the pointed ; and having held a conference same terms and in the same manner as with an agent of the new government, the other States of said Confe May expressly delegated for the pur have done in like cases. 7. pose, the following was agreed to: Third. Whatever expenditure of

“The State of Tennessee, looking to money, if any, the said State of Tennesa speedy admission into the confederacy see shall make before she becomes a established by the Confederate States of member of said Confederacy, shall be America, in accordance with the Consti- met and provided for by the Confederate tution for the Provisional Government | States.



“This convention entered into and House by a vote of fifteen to forty-two, agreed on, in the city of Nashville, eighteen having withheld their votes.

ee, on the seventh day of May, After having thus deprived the people A.D. 1861, by Henry W. Hilliard, the of all independence of action, the Legisduly authorized commissioner to act in lature, with an affected regard fo the matter for the Confederate States, popular will, formally submitted to the and Gustavus A. Henry, Archibald 0. vote of the State a question which they W. Totten, and Washington Barrow, had already decided by an act of their commissioners, duly authorized to act in own, in defiance of the declared sentilike manner for the State of Tennessee. ment of a majority of their fellow-citThe whole subject to the approval and izens. The following is a curious conratification of the proper authorities of trast to the league already formed with both governments, respectively.

the Confederate States. The semblance "In testimony whereof, the parties of deference to popular will and the aforesaid have hereunto set their hands reality of arbitrary power, not seldom and seals, the day and year aforesaid, combined, was never more strikingly in duplicate originals.

manifest than in these two doc- May “HENRY W. HILLIARD,

uments emanating from the same 6. “Commissioner for the Confederate source : States of America.

"Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the General “GUSTAVUS A. HENRY,

Assembly of the State of Tennessee, That “A. O. W. TOTTEN,

immediately after the passage of this “WASHINGTON BARROW,

act, the Governor of this State shall, by

proclamation, direct the sheriffs of the "Commissioners on the part of Ten

several counties in this State to open and nessee."

hold an election at the various voting preThe Legislature hastened to ratify cincts in their respective counties on the this league, and thus secure the future 8th day of June, 1861 ; that the said shersecession of the State, by an act which, iff's, or, in the absence of the sheriffs, the placing the military resources under coroner of the county, shall immediately the control of the Confederate States, advertise the election contemplated by would enable them to repress by coer- this act ; that said sheriffs appoint a cion any appearance of dissatisfaction deputy to hold said election for each in Tennessee. There was, however, voting precinct, and that said deputy a manifestation of opposition, even in appoint three judges and two clerks for the Legislature, to this disregard of the each precinct; and if no officer shall, voice of the people. The resolution from any cause, attend any voting preratifying the league was opposed in the cinct to open and hold said election, Senate by a vote of six to fourteen, four then any justice of the peace, or, in the not having voted at all; and in the absence of a justice of the peace, any re

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