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On the beach outside of the walls | threatened by a force gathered apparthere is a fifteen-inch columbiad placed ently for the purpose of attempting to there for practice, and for additional de- wrest it from the meagre garrison which fence against an attack from the sea. held it, there was great danger of its It, however, also commands the neck of loss. Massachusetts, however, which land, and would seem to check the ap- had been foremost in pouring out her proach of the most ventursome in that resources of men and money in defence direction. The whole cost of the ex- of the Union, came to the rescue, and tensive works of Fortress Monroe has promptly sent one of her regiments of been estimated at nearly three millions. militia to aid in its defence. Embarking The greatest deficiency of the fort is the on board of the steamer Maine, at precariousness of its supply of water. Boston, the Fourth Regiment of MassaAn attempt was made some fifteen years chusetts militia sailed directly to the ago to bore an Artesian well, but the Chesapeake, and landed in safety April effort was abandoned, and the only de- at Fortress Monroe on the 20th of 20. pendence at present is upon large cis- April. terns, which are supplied by the rains. The Government, encouraged by the

Outside of the fort are the numerous enthusiasm of loyalty of the people, and foundries and work and machine shops, fortified by their generosit where large quantities of munitions of began to assert with more confidence, war can be rapidly fabricated. There and to vindicate with more firmness, its is a wharf on the southern side of the contemned authority. New military depeninsula, three hundred yards distant partments were organized. The April from the fort, where vessels of the District of Columbia, Fort Wash- 27. greatest draft of water can lie. Aboutington and the adjacent country, and a quarter of a mile distant, and on the the State of Maryland as far as Bladenswestern side of the walls, stands the burgh, were erected into the Department “Hygeia Hotel," a famous resort in past of Washington, and placed under the summers for the planters of the South command of Colonel J. K. F. Mansfield, in search of the sea breeze at “Old inspector-general, with his headquarters Point Comfort,” as the peninsula is at the capital. That part of Maryland called. Within the fort itself there is a including the country for twenty miles group of nearly fifty houses of brick and on each side of the railroad from Anwood, forming quite a village, and on napolis to the city of Washington, as far one side of the parade ground is a as Bladensburgh, was formed into a new seemly Episcopal chapel.

military department, entitled the DeTo secure this important post became partment of Annapolis, and Butler, with at once a matter of the greatest moment. the rank of brigadier-general of MassaPlaced as it was within the boundaries chusetts volunteers, assigned to the of a State already in open rebellion, and command, with his headquarters at An

napolis. To these was added a third, department of war; and I also direct the Department of Pennsylvania, includ- that the regular army of the United ing that State, the State of Delaware, States be increased by the addition of and all of Maryland not within the eight regiments of infantry, one regiother departments, and the command ment of cavalry, and one regiment of given to Major-General Patterson, with artillery, making altogether a maximum his headquarters at Philadelphia, or any aggregate increase of 22,714 officers and other point which he might be tempo- enlisted men, the details of which inrarily occupying

crease will also be made known through This was soon after followed by this the department of war; and I further May proclamation of the President call- | direct the enlistment, for not less than

3. ing for volunteers for three years, one nor more than three years, of 18,000 and an increase of the regular army and seamen, in addition to the present force, navy:

for the naval service of the United “Whereas existing exigencies demand States. The details of the enlistment immediate and adequate measures for and organization will be made known the protection of the national Constitu- through the department of the navy. tion and the preservation of the national The call for volunteers, hereby made, Union, by the suppression of the insur- and the direction of the increase of the rectionary combinations now existing in regular army, and for the enlistment of several States for opposing the laws of seamen hereby given, together with the the Union and obstructing the execution plan of organization adopted for the thereof, to which end a military force involunteers and for the regular forces addition to that called forth by my hereby authorized, will be submitted to proclamation of the fifteenth day of Congress as soon as assembled. April in the present year appears to be “In the mean time I earnestly invoke indispensably necessary, now, therefore, the co-operation of all good citizens in

m Lincoln, President of the the measures hereby adopted for the United States, and Commander-in-chief effectual suppression of unlawful vioof the Army and Navy thereof, and of lence, for the impartial enforcement of the militia of the several States, when constitutional laws, and for the speediest called into actual service, do hereby call possible restoration of peace and order, into the service of the United States and with those of happiness and prosforty-two thousand and thirty-four vol- perity throughout our country. unteers, to serve for a period of three “In testimony whereof, I have hereyears, unless sooner discharged, and to unto set my hand, and caused the seal be mustered into service as infantry and of the United States to be aflix cavalry. The proportions of each arm | “Done at the city of Washington this and the details of enrolment and organ- | third day of May, in the year of our ization will be made known through the Lord one thousand eight hundred and



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sixty-one, and of the Independence of by the reconstruction of the railroad the United States the eighty-fifth. bridges, destroyed by the rioters of

“ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Maryland, and troops from Pennsylvania “By the President.

were preparing to advance. “ William H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.” | Fort McHenry, too, which had been

All the Northern States began to re- fortunately preserved to the Governspond rapidly to this call of the Presi- ment by the resolute conduct of its Feddent for additional troops, and the Gov- eral commander, Captain Robinson, was ernment was judiciously availing itself reinforced, and, with its guns threatenof its increased naval and military re-ing the destruction of their city, kept sources. Virginia and North Carolina | the people of Baltimore discreetly quiet. were included in the blockade already When the Northern troops were atApril declared, of South Carolina, Geor-tacked on their passage through Balti

27. gia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, more, Fort McHenry had been threatMississippi, and Texas. Merchant steam- ened by the mob ; but Captain Robiners were purchased or chartered to son made it so manifest that he was destrengthen the naval arm, quite inade termined to defend his post to the last quate to the duty of watching so exten extremity, that the most violently dissive a line of sea-coast. The various posed forbore to attack him. Fort ports on the Chesapeake and the Poto McHenry is an old-fashioned work, built mac were especially guarded by the many years ago. Though never of Government cruisers, and the communi great strength, it succeeded during the cations of Virginia with the sea thus war of 1812 in resisting a bombardment effectually cut off.

by the British fleet. Its guns are all As before stated, General Butler, with on the parapet, without any protection May a large force, took possession of the from casemates, and its armament, prin

5. Relay House, at the junction of cipally composed of forty-two pounders, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, only | ten-inch mortars, and eight-inch howseven miles from Baltimore. Here he itzers, though originally deemed formiplanted eight howitzers on the viaduct dable enough, would prove of little efover the Patapsco River and threw up en- fect against the improved cannon of trenchments. He thus could overawe the more modern times. Situated, howrebellious tendencies of that disaffected ever, on a point of land between the city, and, by commanding the Baltimore harbor of Baltimore and the Patapsco and Ohio Railroad, prevent the sending River which empties into it, its posiof supplies to the insurgents of Virginiation is favorable for defending the apin force at Harper's Ferry, by their proaches, while it commands at the sympathizers in Maryland. At the same same time a portion of the city. Sevtime the communications between Balti- eral artillery companies were thrown in more and the North were being opened to reinforce the garrison, and Major


Morris assured the command, while Reverdy Johnson's speech was a Robinson was transferred to other manly defence of the Government, and service.

a sensible exposition of the advantages The union sentiment of Maryland was of the Union to all the States, and espenow claimed to be predominant. Large cially to Maryland: meetings were held and addressed in "I hope,” he said, "you will constrains of loyal rhetoric by leading poli- sider the occasion as justifying a few ticians of Maryland, who, although their thoughts as to the duty and interest of fidelity to the Federal Government had our State in the present emergency. In never been questioned, had hitherto the original causes which have probeen prevented from openly manifesting duced it, she, thank God, had no share. it. Reverdy Johnson, an eminent law. Among the foremost and bravest in yer and statesman of Maryland, took winning our independence ; among the the occasion of the presentation of a truest and wisest in forming our GovUnited States flag by the ladies of Fred ernment, and among the first in adopterick, to the Home Guard of that place, ing it, her sons have uniformly given it to deliver a glowing eulogy upon the a faithful and zealous support. No Union. There was a large audience treasonable thought, so far as we know, gathered to listen to his ardent rhetoric. ever entered the mind of one of them ; The population of the city was swelled certainly no threat of treason was ever by the influx of a large number of whispered by them. They ever felt the friends of the Union, from the neigh-immense advantage of the Union; they boring towns and villages, some insaw evidenced by everything around troops on horseback, some in long trains them the blessings it conferred upon of country vehicles of every kind, and Maryland and upon all ; prosperity unothers in groups afoot. All came in exampled, a national power increasing their holiday costume, and with bloom- every year with a rapidity and to a deing manifestations of their loyalty. gree never before witnessed in a na“Union cockades and badges were dis- tion's history, and winning for us a name played in profusion upon the coats of challenging the respect and admiration the jubilant Union men, numbers of of the world. They saw in the extent whom were decidedly ambitious in their of the country, and the differences of ideas of patriotic personal adornment, climate and habits, elements of strength wearing cockades as large as sunflow- rather than of weakness, and appreers. The stars and stripes fluttered from hended therefore no parricidal efforts in about forty different points, and alto any quarter to destroy the Government. gether,” says an exultant newspaper re If occasionally murmurs of dissatisfacporter, “ Frederick may be said to have tion were heard elsewhere, they were donned her holiday suit for the occa attributed to the whining disposition of sion."

some and the disappointed ambition of

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others. They were ridiculed, subjected the truth of the prediction. How this to no other punishment, but left to stand is to result, Heaven alone knows. as 'monuments of the safety with which | “But to my mind one thing is cererror of opinion may be tolerated where tain : the Government by no single act reason is left free to combat it.' No of its own has given cause for resist'whisky insurrection' ever occurred ance to its rightful authority. The powwithin our borders ; no ordinance of ers which it was exercising at the monullification was ever threatened by us ; ment when rebellion began to muster its and, if we continue true to patriotic duty, 'armies of pestilence,' were clearly conno ordinance of secession, direct or indi- ferred upon it by the Constitution. And rect, open or covert, will ever be adopt- if the Executive, then just legally choed by those in authority, or, if madly sen, had meditated any illegal policy, adopted, be tolerated by the people. the friends of constitutional rights were

"To this steadfast attachment to the numerous enough in Congress, had they Union we are not only bound by grati- remained at their posts, as they were tude to the noble ancestry by whose bound to do by their oaths and their patriotic wisdom it was bequeathed to duty to the holy cause of constitutional us, and by the unappreciable blessings government, successfully and peacefully the bequest has conferred upon us, but to have thwarted it. by the assurance, which the most stolid “The professed especial friends of intellect can hardly fail to feel, that its Southern rights, instead of this, rudely destruction would not only and at once shot from their spheres, and, under the deprive us of all these, but precipitate utterly ridiculous claim of constitutional us into irreparable ruin. In this ruin right, advised State secession. Madall would more or less participate, but men-if not worse—they desecrated, our geographical position would make too, in support of this dogma, the name it to us immediate and total. A peace of Calhoun. He may have committed able disseverance the good and great political errors-who has not? His docmen who have heretofore guided our trine of nullification was certainly one, public councils ever predicted to be im- in the judgment of all his great compossible. The proclamations now trum- peers, sanctioned by almost the entire peted through the land, the marshaling country, but he never maintained the of hosts by thousands and tens of thou-nonsensical heresy of rightful secession. sands, the whitening of our waters with On the contrary, long after that of the an immense naval marine, the blockade short-lived nullification, in February, of ports, the prostration of commerce, 1844, writing to his 'political friends the destruction of almost all civil em and supporters' refusing to permit his ployment, the heated tone of the public name to be presented before the then press of all sections, belching forth the approaching Baltimore Convention, he most bitter enmity—all, all testify to said :


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