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horizontal black line is: here is the seat of the Will, Affections, Passions or Emotions; also the seat of the Motive power of the body; and from these proceed the spinal marrow, (me) enveloped in three different membranes, lying in the hollow of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications over every part of the body; po, the brachial plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different nerves distributed to the arms, or upperextremities; and ps, the plexus, or folds of nerves, that form the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, or lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, the nerves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots; the front (anterior,) one serving for motion, and the back (posterior,) are the nerves of feeling, or sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or working, there should be a perfect harmony and co-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory Nerves, and Motary Nerves; hence, the voluntary effort must be made from the abdomen, where is the great centre of Organic Nerves, in connection with those of Respiration.

8. Here is a striking view of the Muscular, or fleshy portions, that {} form the me-o dium of communication between the Nerves and the Bones: there are several hundreds, acting on the bones like ropes on the masts of ships: let them be trained in perfectsubjection to the Soul, through the Mind; so that whatever is felt & thought, may be bodied forthto the life. Now letus put these three systems, the Nerves, Muscles and Bones, together, and contemplate the whole as a unit, boundup in the skin, and acting in obedience to its rightful owner, the Mind; while that mind is subservient to the Creator of mind.

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called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid temple we live in; which is three stories high; viz. the cavity below the diaphragm, the one above it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each part, the situation and attachment of the different bones of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human frame, there are 250 bones: they afford us the means of locomotion. Do you see any analogy between the body and language?

10. Zoology—(the doctrine or science of life.) is a necessary element of education, whose curiosity has not been excited by the innumerable living beings, and things, with which we are surrounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their interiors, and see how they are made, and understand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, a spider, an oyster, a plant, a stone; observe their differences, in many respects, and their similarities in others: they all have essence, form, use. The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms of nature, the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral, is to emancipate the human mind from the darkness and slavery of ignorance, into the light and liberty of rational humanity. The things of the Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior power; those of the Vegetable kingdom grow; and those of the Mineral kingdom do not live or

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grow; they simply exist. 11. Three objects are designed by this engraving: first, to show the body, clothed in its own beautiful envelop, the skin, which is the continent of our most wonderful piece of Mechanism: second, to call attention to the fact, that it is full of pores, or little holes, through which passes out of our systems more than half of what we eat

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and drink, in the form of what is called insensible perspiration, which is indicated by the cloudy mist, emanating from every part of the surface; and as our bodies wear out, by degrees, and are renewed every seven years, and the skin being the principal evacuating medium for the worn-out particles of the system; the great importance of keeping it in a clean, and consequent healthy condition, by daily washing in soft cold water, must be evident to every one of reflection, it being the safety-valve of the body: and thirdly, to indicate a higher truth, that of the passing off of a subtle and invisible fluid from the mind, in accordance with its state; which is often perceived when certain persons are present; also when powerful speakers are pouring forth their highly wrought affections, and brilliant thoughts; so as to give the mind a kind of ubiquity, co-extensive with their tones and audible words, ruling immense audiences with absolute sway, and demonstrating the power of truth and eloquence. Animals and Plants increase by nutrition: Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh but a few pounds: at adult age, we exceed one hundred pounds. Whence, but from foreign substances, are the materials of which our organs are composed? Insickness, extreme emaciation proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their bulk, and give back to the world what was once its own. Thus, composition and decomposition,

constituting the nutritive function of which living bodies are the centre, are revealed to us by evidencestoo plainto be misunderstood: may we have power to appreciate them, being assured that all truths are in perfect harmony with each other. 12. Here is a representation of the Human Form clothed and engaged in some of the uses of Elocution. But it is necessary to enter more

into the particulars of our subject; which is done in the succeeding parts of this introduction: however, let the readerbear in mind, that only the outlines of subjects are given in the book, designed for such as are determined to dig for truth and etermal principles, as for hidden treasures; whose motto is “Press On.” Animals and Plants endure for a time, and under specific forms, by making the external world a part of their own being; i.e. they have the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, and when this outward supply ceases they die, having completed their term of duration: hence, death, to material existences, is a necessary consequence of life. Not so with minerals: they exist so long as external forces do not destroy them: and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtaposition of other bodies; and if they diminish, it is by the action of a force, or power, from without. Has not every thing its circle? How interesting must be the history of all things, animate and inanimate! Oh that we had eyes to see, and ears to hear, everything that is manifested around us, withinus, and above us: 13. If we would have the Mind act on the Body, and the Body react on the Mind, in an orderly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is necessary that the body be in a natural and upright position. The following engraving represents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the Heart and Lungs; and reason teaches, that no organs should be in the least infringed upon, either by compressions, or by sitting in a bent position. The Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which we make sounds, by condensation. All are familiar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking analogy between it and the body, in the act of speaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is like its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the abdominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; of course, to blow with ease and power, one must take hold of the handles; to speak and sing right, the lower muscles must be used; for there is only one right way of doing anywhing.

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14. This is a view of a well developed and naturally proportioned chest; with space for the lungs, the short ribs thrown outwardly, affording ample room for the free action of the organs: it is the true model of the form of one who would live to a good old age.

15. TIGHT DREssing. No one can enjoy good health, or perform any kind of labor with ease, or read, speak, or sing, when the thorax is habitually compressed. It diminishes the capacity of the lungs, for receiving the necessary quantity of air to purify the blood, and prevents the proper action of the diaphragm. The following engraving shows the alarming condition of the chest, when compressed by tight lacing; a practice that has hurried, and is now hurrying, hundreds of thousands to a premature grave; besides entailing upon the offspring an accumulation of evils, too awful to contemplate. What is the difference between killing one's self in five minutes with a razor, and doing it in five years by tight lacing, or any other bad habit? Our clothing should never be so tight as to prevent the air from coming between it and the body.

16. Here follows an outline of the chest, or thorax of a female, showing the condition of the bones of the body, as they appear after death, in every one who has habitually worn stays and corsets, enforced by tight lacing. “But, says one, ‘I do not lace too tight.” If you lace at all, you most certainly do, and * sooner or later, expe

rience the dreadful consequences. Observe, all the short ribs, from the lower end of the breastbone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly toward the spine, so that the liver, stomach, S. and other digestive organs in that vicinity, are pressed into such a small compass, that their functions are greatly interrupted, and all the vessels, bones and viscera are more or less distorted and enfeebled. Cease to do evil, and learn to do well.

17. This engraving, of a bell-shaped glass, C, C, shows how the air gets into the lungs, and some of its effects. A head is placed on the cork, T, representing the wind-pipe, and having a hole through it. L, represents a bladder, tied to the lower end of the cork, to indicate a lung. At D, is seen the diaphragm. The cavity of the bell represents the inside of the thorax, where the heart and lungs are: there is no communication with the external air, except through the hole in the cork; air, entering through that hole, can go only into the bladder. Now, when the centre of the diaphragm is raised to D, the bladder will be flaccid and devoid of air; but when it is dropped, to the situation of the dotted line, a tendency to a vacuum will be the consequence, which can be supplied with air,

only through the hole in the cork; the air expand

ing the bladder to its full extent, is shown by the dotted circle, around L; and when the diaphragm is elevated again, the air will be forced from the bladder; thus, the lungs are inflated and exhausted by this alternate operation of the diaphragm, and of the contraction and elongation of the abdominal muscles; hence, the comparison between the vocal organs proper, and a pair of bellows, is distinctly seen.

Muscular Action. These two engravings represent some muscular fibres in two states: the upper one at rest, with a relaxed nervous filament ramified through the fibres, as seen under the microscope; and the lower one in a state of contraction, and the fiE, bres in zigzag lines, with a similar nervous filament passing over them: apply the principle to all The subject might be greatly extended; but for further information, see the Author's large work on Physiology and Psychology, which will be published as soon as convenient.

muscles.

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18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells in the Lungs, laid open and highly magnified. The body is formed by Blood, which consists of the nutritious portions of our food, and is in the form of very small globules, or little round balls: a

representation of which is here presented as seen through a microscope, magnified one thousand times. O Every three or four nuinutes, as ageneral rule, the blood flows thro'out the whole body; and, of course, through the lungs, where it undergoes a purification: hence may be seen the importance of an upright position, and perfect inflation of the lungs; no one can live out his days without them. 19. Here are two attitudes, sitting, and standing, passive and active. Beware of too much

stiffness, and too much laxity, of the muscles; be natural and easy. Avoid leaning backwards or forwards, to the right or left: and especially, of resting your head on your hand, with the elbow on something else: by which practice, many have caused a projection of one shoulder, induced spinal affections, &c. Beware of everything that is improper: such as trying how much you can list with one hand, &c.

20. Herefollows arepresentation of the position of the diaphragm, and illustrations of its actions, in exhaling and inhaling. Figure 1, in the left engraving, represents the diaphragm in its greatestdescent, when we draw in our breath: 2, muscles of the abdomen, when protruded to their full extent, in inhaling: 1, in the right engraving, the diaphragm in its greatest ascent in expiration: 2, the muscles of the abdomen in action, forcing the

viscera and diaphragm upwards: the lungs cooperate with the diaphragm and abdominal muscles; or rather, the soul, mind, nerves and muscles act unitedly, and thence with ease, grace and effect. Observe, the Stomach, Liver, &c. are below the diaphragm, and are dependent on it, in a measure, for their actions.

21. Here is a view of the Heart, nearly surrounded by the Lungs, with the different bloodvessels going to, and from them: these organs are shown partially separated; tho' when in their matural positions, they are quite compact together,

and wholly fill up the cavity of the chest: every one has two hearts, for the two different kinds of blood, and each heart has two rooms: a, right auricle, that receives all the blood from every part of the body, through the vena cava, or large vein, which is made up of the small veins, e, e, e, e, e.g. it thence passes into the right ventricle, t, thence into both lungs, where it is purified; after which it passes into the left auricle, and left ventricle, then into the aorta, o, and the carotid and subclavian arteries (u, and v.) to every part of the body; returning every three or four minutes.

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22. This engraving represents the larynx, or vocal box, at 1, near the top of the wind-pipe, 2; the bronchial tubes, or branches of the trachea, 3, 4, going to each lung; the left lungis whole; the substance of the right one is removed, to show the ramifications of M

nating in the air-cells, 7, 7, 8, like leaves on the trees. The bronchial tubes are

the three branches of the wind- 2

pipe, and enter the lungs about one third of the distance from the upper end: hence, how foolish for persons having a sore throat, or larynx, to suppose they have the bronchitis; which consists in a diseased state of the bronchia; generally brought on by an improper mode of breathing, or speaking, &c., with exposure. The remedy may be found in the practice here recommended, with a free use of cold soft water over the whole body, and bandages wet with the same, placed about the chest and neck, to be removed every few hours, as they become dry.

23. Here is a horizontal view of the Glottis: N, F, are the arytenoid cartilages, connected with the chordae vocales, (vocal cords, or ligaments,) T, V, stretching across from the top of the arytenoid to the point of the thyroid cartilage: these cords can be elongated, and enlarged to produce lower sounds, and contracted and diminished for higher ones: and, at the same time, separated from each other, and allowing more condensed air to pass for the former purposes; or brought nearer together, to favor the latter: there are a great many muscles attached to the larynx, to give variety to the modifications of voice in

speech and song.

24. Here is a frontview of the Vocal Organs: e is the top of the wind-pipe, and within and a little above dis the larynx, or vocal box, where all voicesounds are made: the two horns at the top, represent the upper extremities of the thyroid cartilage: the tubes up and down, and transverse, are blood-vessels: beware of having anything tight around the neck,

neck much, impeding the free circulation of the blood, and determining it to the head.

ORATORICAL AND POETICAI, ACTION. Positions of FEET AND HANDs.

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