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57. There are no impure diphthongs or triphthongs, in which two or three vowels represent, or unite, in one sound; for all are silent except one ; as in air, aunt, awl, plaid, steal, lead, curtain, soar, good, your, cough, feu-dal, dun-geon, beau-ty, a-dieu, view-ing. These silent letters, in connection with the vocals, should be called di-graphs and trigraphs; that is, doubly and triply written: they sometimes merely indicate the sound of the accompanying vowel, and the derivation of the word. Let me beware of believing anything, unless I can see that it is true: and for the evidence of truth, I will look at

the truth itself. 58. Diphthongs; Ou, and Ow: OUR ; Mr. Brown of an ounce of sound a-round a cloud, and drowned a mouse in a pound of sour chow-der; a drow-sy! mouse de-vour'd a house and \ No/ howl'd a pow-wow a-bout the 'ou Houns moun-tains; the gou-ty owl crouched in his tow-er, and the scowl-ing cow bowed down de-vout-ly in her bow-er; the giour (jower) en-shroud-ed in pow-er, en-dow-ed the count's prow-ess with a renown'd trow-el, and found him with a stout gown in the coun-ty town.

59. Demosthenes, the Grecian orator, paid many thousands to a teacher in Elocution; and Cicero, the Roman orator, after having completed his education, in other respects, spent two whole years in recitation, §: one of the most celebrated tragedians of antiquity. , Brutus declared, that he would prefer the honor, of being esteemed the master of Roman eloquence, to the glory of many triumphs.

60. Notes. 1. ou and ow are the only representatives of this dipththonzal sound; the former generally in the middle of words, and the latter at the end: in blow, show, and low, w is silent. 2. There are 12 mono-thongal vowels, or single voice sounds, and 4 diph-thongal vowels, or double voice sounds: these are heard in isle, tune, oil and out. 5. There is a very incorrect and offentire sound given by some to this diphthong, particularly in the Northern states, in consequence of drawing the corners of the mouth back, and keeping the teeth too close, while pronouncing it; it may be called a flat, nasal sound: in song it is worse than in speech. It may be represented as follows—kcou, neou, groun, pear, decum, ketounty, sheuxxr, &c. Good natured, laughing people, living in cold climates, where they wish to keep the mouth nearly closed, when talking, are often guilty of this vulgarity. It may be avoided by opening the mouth wide, projecting the under jaw and making the sound deep in the throat.

Anecdote. Woman as she should be. A young woman went into a public library, in a certain town, and asked for “Man as he is.” “That is out, Miss,” said the librarian; “but we have “Woman as she should be.’” She took the book and the hint too. where are the heroes of the ages past : [ones Where the brave chieftains—where the mighty Who flourish’d in the infancy of days 3 All to the grave gone down!—On their fall’n fame, Exultant, mocking at the pride of man, Sits grim Forgetfulness. The warrior's arm Lies merreless on the pillow of its shame: Hush'd is his stormy voice, and quenched the blaze Of his red eye-ball.

Proverbs. 1. As you make your bed, so must you lie in it. 2. Be the character you would be called. 3. Choose a calling, th’t is adapted to your inclination, and natural abilities. 4. Lire—and let live ; i.e. do as you would be done by. 5. Character—is the measure of the man. 6. Zealously keep down little expenses, and you will not be likely to incur large ones. 7. Erery one knows how to find fault. 8. Fair words and foul play cheat both young and old. 9. Give a dog an ill name, and he will soon be shot. 10. He knows best what is good, who has endured eril. 11. Great pains and little gains, soon make man weary. 12. The fairest rose will wither at last. Cause and Effect. The evils, which afflict the country, are the joint productions of all parties and all classes. They have been produced by over-banking, over-tradung, over-spending, over-dashing, over-driving, over-reaching, over-borrowing, overeating, over-drinking, over-thinking, overplaying, over-riding, and over-acting of every kind and description, except overworking. Industry is the foundation of society, and the corner-stone of civilization. Recipients. We receive according to our states of mind and life: if we are in the love and practice of goodness and truth, we become the receivers of them in that proportion; but if otherwise, we form receptacles of their opposites, falsity and evil. When we are under heavenly influences, we know that all things shall work together for our happiness; and when under infernal influences, they will work together for our misery. Let us then choose, this day, whom we will serve; and then shall we know—wherein consists the art of happiness, and the art of misery. Varieties. 1. Is not the single fact, that the human mind has thought of another world, good proof that there is one 3 2. Toleration—is good for all, or it is good for none. 3. He who swallows up the substance of the poor, will, in the end, find that it contains a bone, which will choke him. 4. The greatest share of happiness is enjoyed by those, who possess affluence, without superfluity, and can command the comforts of life, without plunging into its luaruries. 5. Do not suppose that everything is gold, which glitters; build not your hopes on a sandy foundation. 6. The world seems divided into two great classes, agitators and the nonagitators: why should those, who are established on the immutable rock of truth, fear agitation? 7. True humiliation—is a pearl of great price; for where there is no resistance, or obstacle, there, heaven, and its influences must enter, enlighten, teach, purify, create and support. The only prison, th’t enslaves the soul, Is the dark habitation, where she dwells,

As in a noisome dungeon.

59. Reading—by vowel sounds only, is analagous to singing by note, instead of by word. This is an exceedingly interesting and important exercise: it is done, simply, by omitting the consonants, and pronouncing the vowels, the same as in their respective words. First, pronounce one or more words, and then re-pronounce them, and leave off the consonants. The vow Els constitute the Ess ENCE of words, and the coxsoNANTs give that material the proper FonM.

60 All the vowel sounds, thrice told,— James Parr; Hall Mann; Eve Prest; Ike Sill; Old Pool Forbs; Luke Munn Bull; Hoyle Prout—ate palms walnuts apples, peaches melons, ripe figs, cocoas goosberries hops, cucumbers prunes, and boiled sour-crout, to their entire satisfaction. Ale, ah, all, at ; eel, ell; isle, ill; old, ooze, on 3 mute, up, full; oil, ounce. Now repeat all these vowel sounds consecutively, : A, A, A, A.; E, E: I, I; O, O, O.; U, U, U; Oi. Ou.

61. Elocution—comprehends Expulsion of Sound, Articulation, Force, Time, Pronunciation, Accent, Pauses, Measure and Melody of Speech, Rhythm, Emphasis, the Eight Notes, Intonation, Pitch, Inflexions, Circumflexes, Cadences, Dynamics, Modulation, Style, the Passions, and Rhetorical Action.

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Proverbs. 1. A man is no better for liking himself, if nobody else likes him. 2. A white glove often conceals a dirty hand. 3. Better pass at once, than to be always in danger. 4. Misunderstandings—are often best prevented, by pen and ink. 5. Knowledge is treasure, and memory is the treasury. 6. Crosses—are ladders, leading to heaven. 7. Faint praise, is disparagement. 8. Deliver me from a person, who can talk only on one subject. 9. He who peeps throgh a keyhole may see what will rer him. 10. If shrewd men play the fool, they do it with a vengeance. 11. Physicians rarely take medicines. 12. Curses, like chickens, generally come home to roost.

Anecdote. A get-off. Henry the Fourth was instigated to propose war against the Protestants, by the importunity of his Parliament ; whereupon, he declared that he would make every member a captain of a company in the army : the proposal was then unanimously negatived.

Contrasts. Our fair ladies laugh at the Chinese ladies, for depriving themselves of the use of their feet, by tight shoes and bandages, and whose character would be ruined in the estimation of their associates, if they were even suspected of being able to walk :-while they, I. the more dangerous and destructive habits of tight-lacing, destroy functions of the body far more important, not only to themselves, but to their offspring ; and whole troops of dandies, quite as taper-waisted, and almost as masculine as their mothers, are the natural results of such a gross absurdity. If to be admired—is the motive of such a custom, it is a most paradoxical mode of accomplishing this end ; for that which is destructive of health, must be more destructive of beauty—that beauty, in a vain effort to preserve which, the victims of this fashion have devoted themselves to a joyless youth, and a premature decrepitude,

Varieties. 1. Is it best to divulge the truth to all, whatever may be their state of mind and life! 2. A good tale—is never the worse for being twice fold. 3. Those who do not love anything, rarely experience great enjoyments; those who do love, often suffer deep griefs. 4. The way to heaven is delightful to those who love to walk in it; and the difficulties we meet with in endeavoring to keep it, do not spring from the nature of the way, but from the state of the traveler. 5. He, who wishes nothing, will gain nothing. 6. It is good to know a great deal; but it is better to make a good use of what we do know. 7. Every day—brings forth something for the mind to be exercised on, either of a mental, or external character; and to be faithful in it, and acquit ourselves with the advantage derived thereby, is both wisdom and duty. Whether he knew things, or no, His tongue eternally would go; For he had impudence—at will,

63. Elocution and Music being inseparable in their nature, every one, of common organization, whether aware of it, or not, uses all the elements of Music in his daily intercourse with society. When we call to one at a distance, we raise the voice to the upper pitches: when to one near by, we drop it to the lower pitches; and when at a medium distance, we raise it to the middle pitches: that is, in the first case, the voice is on, or about the eighth note : in the second, on, or about the first note: and in the last place, on, or about the third or fifth note. In commencing to read or speak in |..."; one should never commence above

is fifth note, or below his third note; and, to ascertain on what particular pitch the lowest natural note of the voice is, pronounce the word awe, by prolonging it, without feeling ; and to get the upper one, sound eel, strongly.

64. vocal Music. In the vowel sounds of our language, are involved all the elements of music; hence, every one who wishes, can learn to sing. hese eight vowels, when naturally sounded, by a developed voice, will give the intonations of the notes in the scale, as follows, commencing at the bottom.

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65. This Diatonic Scale of eight notes, (though there are but seven, the eighth being a repetition of the first,) comprehends five whole tones, and two semi, or half tones. An erect ladder, with seven rounds, is a good representation of it; it stands on the ground, or floor, which is the tonic, or first note; the first round is the second note, or supertonic ; the second round is the third note, or mediant; the third round, is the fourth note, or subdominant : , between which, and the second round, there is a semitone; the fourth round is the fifth note, or dominant ; the fifth round is the sixth note, or submediant ; the sixth round is the seventh note, or subtonic; and the seventh round is the eighth note, or octave.

Keep one consistent plan—from end—to end.

Notes. 1. In song, as well as in speech, the Articulation, Pitch, Force, and Time, must be attended to; i.e. in both arts, mas. ter the right form of the elements, the degree of elevation and depression of the voice, the kind and degree of loudness of sounds, and their duration: there is nothing in singing that may not be found in speaking.

Anecdote. Musical Pun. A young Musician, remarkable for his modesty and sincerity, on his first appearance before the public, finding that he could not give the trills, effectively, assured the audience, by way of apology, “that he trembled so, that he could not shake.

Proverbs. 1. A word—is enough to the wise. 2. It is easier to resist our bad passions at first, than after indulgence. 3. Jokes—are bad coin to all but the jocular. 4. You may find your worst enemy, or best friend—in yourself. 5. Every one has his hobby. , 6. Fools—have liberty to say what they please. 7. Give every one his due. 8. He who wants content, cannot find it in an easy chair. 9. Ill-will never spoke well. 10. Lawyer's gowns are lined with the wilfulness of their clients. 11. Hunger—is an excellent sauce. 12. I confide, and am at rest.

True Wisdom. All have the faculty given them of growing wise, but not equally wise: by which faculty is not meant the ability to reason about truth and goodness from the sciences, and thus of confirming whatever any one pleases ; but that of discerning what is true, choosing what is suitable, and applying it to the various uses of life. He is not the richest man, who is able to comprehend all about making money, and can count millions of dollars; but he, who is in possession of millions, and makes a proper use of them.

varieties. 1. Does not life—beget life, and death-generate death 2. The man, who is always complaining, and bewailing his misfortunes, not only feeds his own misery, but wearies and disgusts others. 3. We are apt to regulate our mode of living— more by the example of others, than by the dictates of reason and common sense, 4. Frequent recourse to artifice and cunnin is a proof of a want of capacity, as well as of an illiberal mind. 5. Every one, who does not grow better, as he grows older, is a spendthrift of that time, which is more precious than gold. 6. Do what you know, and you Wii know what to do. 7. As is the reception of truths, such is the perception of them in all minds. 8. Do you see more than your brother f then be more humble and thankful; hurt not him with thy meat, and strong food : when a man, he will be as able to eat it as yourself, and, perhaps, more so.

Walk with thy fellow creatures’: note the hush
And whisperings amongst them. Not a spring
Or leaf-but hath his morning hymn; each bush
And oak—doth know I AM. Canst thou not sing?
O leave thy cares and follies 1 go this way,
And thou art sure to prosper—all the day.

66. The twenty-eight consonant sounds. For the purpose of still farther developing and training the voice, and ear, for reading, speaking, and singing, a systematic, and thorough practice, on the twentyeight consonants, is absolutely essential: in which erercises, it is of the first importance, to make the effort properly, and observe the exact positions of the organs. These consomants are either single, double, or triple; and some of them are vocal sounds, (sub-tonics, or sub-vowels,) others, merely aspirates, breath sounds or atonics: let them be analyzed and presented according to their natures, and uses. 67. B has but one sound, which is its name sound BA; baa, ball, bat; be, beg ; bide, bid; ( . bode, boon, boss; bute, buss, (<> brute; boil, bound; a rob-in im- vbibed blub-bers from a bob-bin, sh in BA.) and gob-bled for cab-bage; the rob-ber blabbed bar-ba-rous-ly, and bam-boo-zled the tab-by na-bob ; , Ja-cob dab-bled in ribbons, and played hob-nob with a cob-ler; the bab-oon ba-by gab-bled its gub-ber-ish, and made a jof for its bib and blackber-ries; the rab-ble's hob-by is, to browbeat the bram-ble bushes for bil-ber-ries, and | the boo-by of his bom-bas-tic blackirol. 68. By obtaining correct ideas of the sounds of our letters, and their influences over each other; of the meaning and pronunciation of words, and their power over the understanding and will of man, when !. arranged into sentences, teeming with correct thought and genuine feeling, I may, with proper application and exercise, become a good reader, speaker, and writer. Notes. 1. To get the vocal sound of b, speak its name, be, and then make a strong effort to pronounce it again, compress. ing the lips closely; and the moment you give the sound of be, when you get to e, stop, and you will have the right sound; or, pronounce ub, in the usual way, then, with the teeth shut, and the lips very close, prolonging the last sound; and, in both cases, let none of the sound of b, come into the mouth, or pass through the nose. 2. It was in analyzing and practicing the sounds of the let. ters, and the different pitches and qualities of voice, that the author became acquainted with the principles of VENTRILoquois M, (or vocal modulatum, as it should be called.) which art is perfectly simple, and can be acquired and practiced by almost any one of common organization. Begin by swallowing the sound, suppressing and depressing it. 3. B is silent in delt, subtle, doubt, lamb, comb, dumb, thumb, limb, crumb, sult-le-ty, suc-cumb, bdell-ium. Anecdote. A beautiful English countess said, that the most agreeable compliment she ever had paid her, was from a sailor in the street; who looked at her, as if fascinated, and exclaimed, “Bless me! let me light my pipe at your eyes.” We rise—in glory, as we sink—in pride; Where boasting-ends, there dignity—begins. The true, and only friend—is he, Who, like the Arbor-pita true, Will bear our image—on his heart. Whatever is excellent, in art, proceeds From labor and endurance.

Proverbs. 1. Gentility, sent to market, will not buy even a peck of corn. 2 He, that is trarm, thinks others so. 3. A true friend—should venture, sometimes, to be a little offensive. 4. It is easy to take a man's part; but the difficulty is to maintain it. 5. Misfortunes—seldom come alone. 6. Never quit certainty—for hope. 7. One —beats the bush, and another—catches the bird. 8. Plough, or not plough, you must pay your rent. 9, Rome—was not built in a day. 10. Seek till you find, and you will not lose your labor. ll. An oak-is not felled by one stroke. 12. A display of courage—often causes real cowardice.

Party Spirit. The spirit of party—unquestionably, has its source in some of the native passions of the heart; and free governments naturally furnish more of its aliment, than those under which liberty of speech, and of the press is restrained, by the strong arm of power. But so naturally does party run into eactremes; so unjust, cruel, and remorseless is it in its eaccess, so ruthless is the war which it wages against private character; so unscrupulous in the choice of means for the attainment of selfish ends, so sure is it, eventually, to dig the grave of those free institutions of which it pretends to be the necessary accompaniments; so inevitably does it end in military despotism, and unmitigated tyrany; that I do not know how the voice and influence of a good man could, with more propriety, be exerted, than in the effort to assuage its violence. Varieties. 1. Are our ideas inmate, or acquired 2 2. The mind that is conscious of its own rectitude, disregards the lies of common report. 3. Some—are very liberal, even to profuseness, when they can be so at the expense of others. 4. There are pure loves, else, there were no white lilies. 5. The glory of wealth and external beauty—is transitory; but virtue—is everlasting. 6. We soon acquire the habits and practices, of those we live with ; hence the importance of associating with the best company, and of carefully avoiding such as may corrupt and debase us. 7. The present state is totally different from what men suppose, and make, of it; the reason of our existence—is our growth in the life of heaven, and all things are moved and conspire unto it; and great might be the produce, if we were faithful to the ordinances of heaven. In eastern lands, they talk in flower’s, And they tell, in a garland, their love and cares; Each blossom, th’t blooms in their garden bowers, On its leaves, a mystic language bears; Then gather a wreath from the garden bowers, And tell the wish of thy heart—in flowers. Praise, from a friend, or censure, from a foe, Is lost—on hearers th’t our merits know. As full as an egg is of meat.

69. These arts, like all others, are made up of many little things ; if I look well to them, all difficulties will vanish, or be easily overcome. Every youth ought to blush at the thought, of REMAINING ignorant, of the first principles of his native language. I can do almost ANY thing, if I only think so, and try : therefore, let me not say I can't ; but I will.

70. C has four regular sounds : first,

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--~~/ fore e, i, and y : cede, ci-on, cy- ~ ress; rec-i-pe for cel-i-ba-cy {&#) in the cit-y of Cin-cin-na-ti is \\ T. a fas-ci-nat-ing sol-ace for civ-il (c in CEDE.) so-ci-e-ty; Cic-e-ro and Ce-cil-i-as, with tac-it re-ci-proc-i-ty di-lac-er-ate the a-cid pum-ice with the fa-cile pin-cers of the vice-ge-rency; the asces-cen:cy of the citrons in the pla-cid cel-lar, and the im-bec-ile lic-o-rice on the cor-nice of the prec-i-pice ex-cite the dis-ci-pline of the doc-ile di-oce-San. 71. Lisping—is caused by permitting the tongue to come against, or between the front o when it should not; thus, substituting the breath sound of TH for that of s or sh. This bad habit may be avoided or overcome by practicing, the above and similar combinations, with the teeth closely and firmly set; not allowing the tongue to press against the teeth, nor making the effort too near the front part of the mouth. The object to be attained is worthy of great efforts: many can be taught to do a thing, in a proper manner, which they would never find out of themselves. 72. Irregulars. S often has this sound; rise and pro-gress. The pre-cise Sal-lust, starts on stilts, and assists the earths in the u-ni-verse for con-science' sake: he spits base brass and subsists on stripes; the ma-gis-trates sought; So-lus boasts he twists the texts and suits the several sects; the strong masts stood still in the finest streets of Syr-a-cuse ; Se-sos-tris, still strutting, persists the Swiss ship is sunk, while sweetness sits smiling on the lips. Swan swam over the sea; well swum swan; swan swam back again; well swum swan. Sam Slick sawed six sleek slim slippery o: Amidst the mists he thrust his fists against the posts, and insists he sees the ghosts in Sixth street. Notes. 1. S has the above sound, at the beginning of words, and other situations, when preceded or followed by an abrupt, or a breath consonant. 2. To make this aspirate, place the organs as in the engraving, and begin to whisper the word see; but give none of the sound of c. Never permit sounds to coalesce, that ought to be heard distinctly; hosts, costs, &c. 4. Don't let the teeth remain together an instant, after the sound is made; rather not bring them quite together. 5. C is silent in the following: Czar, arbuscles, virtuals, Czarina, ( i long e,) ode, indictable, and second c in Connecticut. Hear, then, my argument; confess we must, A God there is—supremely just ; If so, however things affect our sight, (As sings the bard, ) “whatever is—is right.” As the wind blows, you must set your sail.

Good measure, pressed down and running over.

Proverbs. 1. Building—is a sweet imporerishing. 2. Unmanliness—is not so impolite, as over-politeness. 3. Death—is deaf, and hears no denial. 4. Every good scholar is not a good schoolmaster. 5. Fair words break no bones; but foul words many a one. 6. He, who has not bread to spare, should not keep a dog. 7. If you had fewer pretended friends, and more enemies, you would have been a better man. 8. Lean liberty—is better than fat slarery, 9. Much coin—much care ; much meat—much malady. 10. The submitting to one wrong—often brings another. 11. Consult your purse, before you do fancy. 12. Do what you ought, come what will.

Anecdote. The Psalter. The Rev. Mr. M—, paid his devoirs to a lady, who was prepossessed in favor of a Mr. Psalter: her partiality being very evident, the former took occasion to ask, (in a room full of company,) “Pray Miss, how far have you got in your Psalter?” The lady archly replied,—As far as “Blessed is the man.”

Book Keeping—is the art of keeping accounts by the way of debt and credit. It teaches us all business transactions, in an exact manner, so that, at any time, the true state of our dealings may be easily known. Its principles are simple, its conclusions natural and certain, and the proportion of its parts complete. The person, who buys or receives, is Dr. (Debtor,) the one who sells, or parts with anything, is Cr. (Creditor :) that is, Dr. means your charges against the person; and Cr. his against you : therefore, when you sell an article, in charging it, say, “To so and so,” (mentioning the article, weight, quantity, number, amount, &c.) “so much:” but when you buy, or receive any thing, in giving credit for it, say, By so and so ; mentioning particulars as before. A knowledge of Book-keeping is important to every one who is engaged in any kind of business ; and it must be evident, that for the want of it—many losses have been sustained, great injustice done, and many law-suits entalled.

varieties. 1. Ought lotteries to be abolished? 2. Carking cares, and anxious apprehensions are injurious to body and mind. 3. A good education—is a young man’s best capital. 4. He, that is slow to wrath, is better than the mighty. 5. Three difficult things are—to keep a secret, to forget an injury, and make good use of leisure hours. 6. If one speaks from an evil affection, he may influence, but not enlighten; he may cause blind acquiescence, but not action from a conscious sense of right. 7. Men have just so much of life in them, as they have of pure truth and its good—implanted and growing in them. Would you live an angel's days * Be honest, just, and wise, always.

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