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415. Beware of a slavish attention to rules; for nothing should supercede Nature, who knows more than Art; therefore, let her stand in the foreground, with art for her servant. Emotion—is the soul of oratory: one flash of passion on the cheek, one beam of feeling from the eye, one thrilling note of sensibility from the tongue, one stroke of hearty emphasis from the arm, have o: ly more value, than all the rhetorical rules and flourishes of ancient or modern times. The great rule is—BE IN EARNEST. This is what Demosthenes more than intimated, in thrice declaring, that the most important thing in eloquence, was action. There will be no erecution without fire. Whoever thinks, must see, that man—was made To face the storm, not languish in the shade; Action—his sphere, and, for that sphere designed, Eternal pleasures—open on his mind. For this—fair hope—leads on th’ impassioned soul, Through life's wild labyrinth—to her distant goal: Paints, in each dream, to fan the genial flame, The pomp of riches, and the pride of fame; Or, fondly gives reflection's cooler eye, A glance, an image, of a future sky. Notes. The standard for propriety, and force, in public speaking is—to speak just as one would naturally express himself in earnest conversation in private company. Such should we all do, if left to ourselves, and early pains were not taken to substitute an artificial method, for that which is natural. Beware of inagining that you must read in a different way, with different tones and cadences, from that of common speaking. Anecdote. The severity of the laws of Draco, is proverbial; he punished all sorts of crime, and even idleness, with death: hence, De-ma-des said – “He writes his laws, not with ink—but with blood.” On being asked why he did so, he replied,—that the smallest crime deserved death, and that there was not a greater punishment he could find out, for greater crimes. Miscellaneous. 1. Envy-is the daughter of pride, the author of revenge and murder, the beginning of secret sedition and the perpetual tormentor of virtue; it is the filthy slime of the soul, a venom, a poison, that consumeth the flesh, and drieth up the mar. row of the bones. 2. What a pity it is, that there are so many quarter and half men and women, who can take delight in gossip, because they are not great enough for any thing else. Were I so tall—as to reach the pole, And grasp the ocean—with a span, I would be measured—by my soul, The mind's—the standard of the man.
Laconics. 1. God has given us vocal organs, and reason to use them. 2. True gesture—is the language of nature, and makes its way to the heart, without the utterance of a single word. 3. Coarseness and vulgarity—are the effects of a bad education; they cannot be chargeable to nature. 4. Close observation, and an extensive knowledge of human nature alone, will enable one to adapt himself to all sorts of character. 5. Painting— describes what the object is in itself: poetry—what it inspires or suggests: one—represents the visible, the other—both the visible and the invisible. 6. It is uncandid self-will, that condemns without a hearing. 7. The mind—wills to be free; and the signs of the times—proclaim the approach of its restoration. woman. The right education of this sex is of the utmost importance to human life. There is nothing, that is more desirable for the common good of all the world; since, as they are mothers and mistresses of families, they have for some time the care of the education of their children of both sorts; they are intrusted with that, which is of the greatest consequence to human life. As the health and strength, or weakness of our bodies, is very much owing to their methods of treating us when we were young; so—the soundness or folly of our minds is not less owing to their first tempers and ways of thinking, which we eagerly received from the love, tenderness, authority, and constant conversation of our mothers. As we call our first language our mother-tongue, so—we may as justly call o: tempers our mother-tempers; and perhaps it may be found more easy to forget the language, than to part entirely with those tempers we learned in the nursery. It is, therefore, to be lamented, that the ser, on whom so much depends, who have the first forming both of our bodies and our minds, are not only educated in pride, but in the silliest and most o part of it. Girls are indulged in great vanity; and mankind seem to consider them in no other view than as so man painted idols, who are to allure and gratify their passions. Varieties. 1: Was England-fustified in her late warlike proceeding against China? 2. Fit language there is none, for the heart's deepest things. 3. The honor of a maid—is her name; and no legacy is so rich as honesty. 4. O, how bitter a thing it is— to look into happiness—thro' another's eyes. Ungrateful man, with liquorish draughts, And morsels unctuous, greases his pure mind, That from it—all consideration slips. To persist In doing wrong, extenuates not wrong, But makes it much more heavy. He cannot be a perfect man, Not being tried or tutored in the world: Erperience is by industry achieved, And perfected—by the swift course of time. A confused report—passed thro' my ears; But, full of hurry, like a morning dream, It vanished—in the business of the day.
416. The DEcLAMAtony AND HonorATony—indicate a deep interest for the persons addressed, a horror of the evil they are entreated to avoid, and an exalted estimate of the good, they are exhorted to pursue. The exhibition of the strongest feeling, requires such a degree of self-control, as, in the very torrent, tempest and whirlwind of passion, possesses a temperance to give it smoothness. The DRAMAtic — sometimes calls for the exercise of all the vocal and mental powers: hence, one must consider the character represented, the circumstances under which he acted, the state of feeling he possessed, and every thing pertaining to the scene with which he was connected.
417. Rolla's ADDREss to the PERUv1ANs. My brave assóciates—partners—of my tail, my feelings, and my fime! Can Rolla's words—add vigor—to the virtuous emergies, which inspire your hearts? No, Mou have judged as I have, the foulness of the crafty plea, by which these bold invaders would delude you. Your generous spirit has compared, as mine has, the motives, which, in a war like this, can animate their minds and ours. They, by a strange frenzy driven, fight for power, for plunder, and extended rule; we, for our country, our altars, and our homes. They—follow an adventurer, whom they fear, and obey a power, which they hate; we-serve a monarch whom we love-a God, whom we adore. Whene'er they move in anger, desolation—tracks their progress! Whene'er they pause in amity, affliction—mourns their friendship. They boast, they come but to improve our state, enlarge our thoughts, and free us from the yoke of error / Yes—they will give enlightened freedom to our minds, who are themselves the slaves of passion, avarice, and pride. They offer us their protection. Yes, such protection—as vultures—give to lambs— covering, and devouring them. They call on us to barter all of good, we have inherited and proved, for the desperate chance of something better, which they promise. Be our plain answer this: The throne—we honor —is the people's choice; the laws we reverence—are our brave fathers’ legacy; the| we follow—teaches us to live in bonds of charity with all mankind, and die—with hope of bliss—beyond the grave. Tell your invaders this, and tell them too, we seek no change; and, least of all, such change as they would bring us.
Oh! vice accursed, that lur'st thy victim on
Proverbs. 1. The more—women look into their glasses, the less—they attend to their houses. 2. Works, and not words, are the proof of love. 3. There is no better looking-glass, than a true friend. 4. When we obey our superiors, we instruct our inferiors. 5. There is more trouble in having nothing to do, than in having much to do. 6. The best throw of the dice—is to throw them away. 7. Virtue, that parleys, is near the surrender. 8. The spirit of truth—dwelleth in meekness. 9. Resist a temptation, till you conquer it. 10. Plain dealing is a jewel. Anecdote. Faithful unto Death. When the venerable Polycarp—was tempted by Herod, the proconsul, to demy, and blaspheme the Lond Jesus CHR1st, he answered,— “Eighty and six years—have I served my LoRD and SAvion,-and in all that time— he never did me any injury, but always good; and therefore, I cannot, in conscience, reproach my KING and my REDEEMER.” A Wife 3 not an Artist. When a man of sense comes to marry, it is a companion he wants, and not an artist. It is not merely a creature who can paint, and play, and sing, and dance. It is a being who can comfort and counsel him; one who can reason and reflect, and feel and judge, and discourse and discriminate; one who can assist him in his affairs, lighten his sorrows, purify his joys, strengthen his principles and educate his children. Such is the woman who is fit for a mother, and the mistress of a family. A woman of the former description may occasionally figure in a drawing-room, and excite the admiration of the company; but is entirely unfit for a helpmate to man, and to train up a child in the way he should go. Varieties. 1. He, who is cautious and prudent, is generally secure from many dangers, to which many others are exposed. 2. A fool may ask more questions in an hour, than a wise man may answer in seven years. 3. The manner in which words are delivered, contribute mainly to the effects they are to produce, and the importance which is attached to them. 4. Shall this greatest of free nations be the best 2 5. One of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and excellence, is indolence. 6. One hour's sleep before midnight, is worth two afterward. 7. Science, or learning, is of little use, unless guided by good
Ah! why should man alone, nor worship, nor rejoico
418. The merging of the Diatonic Scale in the Musical Staff, as some have done in elocution, is evidently incorrect; for then, the exact pitch of voice is ficed, and all must take that pitch, whether it be in accordance with the voice, or not. But in the simple diatonic scale, as here presented, each one takes his lowest natural note for his tonic, or key-note, and then, passes to the medium range of pitches. Different voices are often keyed on different pitches; and to bring them all to the same pitch, is as arbitrary as Procruste's bedstead, according to Hudribras:
“This iron bedstead, they do fetch, To try our hopes upon; If we're too short, we must be stretch'd, Cut off-if we're too long.” Beware of all racks; be natural, or nothing. What the weak head—with strongest bias rules, Is (6) PRIDE ; the never-sailing vice of fools. A soul, without reflection, like a pile, Without inhabitant—to ruin runs. Wit—is fine language—to advantage dressed; Better often thought, but ne'er so well erpressed. Our needful knowledge, like our needful food, Unhedged, lies open—in life's common field, And bids ALL–welcome—to the vital feast. Let sense—be ever in your view; Nothing is lovely, that is not true. 419. SUGGEstroNs. Let the pupils memorize any of the proverbs, laconics, marims, or questions, and recite them on occasions like the following: when they first assemble in the school-room; or, meet together in a social circle: let them also carry on a kind of conversation, or dialogue with them, and each strive to get one appropriate to the supposed state, character, &c. of another: or use them in a variety of ways, that their ingenuity may suggest. Pride. There is no passion so universal, or that steals into the heart more imperceptibly, and covers itself under more disguises, than pride; and yet, there is not a single view of human nature, which is not suf. ficient to eactinguish in us all the secret seeds of pride, and sink the conscious soul— to the lowest depths of humility. Anecdote. Sterling Integrity. In 1778, while congress was sitting in Philadelphia, frequent attempts were made, by the British officers, and agents, to bribe several of the members. Governor Johnstone—authorized the following proposal, to be made to Col. Joseph Reed: “That if he would engage his interest to promote the objects of the British, he should receive thirty ThousAND DolLARs, and any office in the colonies, in his majesty's gift. Col. Reed—indignantly replied,—“I am not worth purchasing; but such as I am, the king of Great Britain is not rich enough to buy me.”
Laconics. 1. Any violation of law—is a breach of morality. 2. Music, in all its variety, is essentially one: and so is speech, tho' infinitely diversified. 3. Literary people—are often unpleasant companions in mixed society; because they have not always the power of adapting themselves to others. 4. It is pedantry—to introduce foreign words into our language, when we have pure English words to express all that the exotics contain; with the advantage of being intelligible to every one. 5. Whatever is merely artificial, is unnatural; which is opposed to general eloquence. 6. There can he no great advances made, in genuine scientific truth, without well regulated affeetions. 7. We can be almost anything we choose; if we will a thing to be done, no matter how high the aim, success is nearly certain.
Anger. Of all passions—there is not one so eartravagant and outrageous as this; other passions solicit and mislead us: but this— runs away with us by force, hurries us as well to our own, as to another’s ruin: it often falls upon the wrong person, and discharges its wrath on the innocent instead of the guilty. It spares neither friend nor foe; but tears all to pieces, and casts human nature into a perpetual warfare.
And all the men and women—merely players :
420. The SLENnrn ch. An Actron 1stic of Voice. In all cases, endeavor to express by the voice and gesture, the sense and feeling, that are designed to be conveyed by the words; i.e. tell the whole truth. Most of the following words, that Shakspeare puts into the mouth of Hotspur, descriptive of a dandy, requires the use of this peculiarity of voice, in order to exhibit their full meaning. Conceive how a blunt, straight-forward, honest soldier would make his defence, when unjustly accused by his finical superior, of unsoldier-like conduct; and then recite the following. My liege—I did deny no prisoners. But I remember, when the fight was done, When I was dry with rage, and extreme toil, Breathless, and faint, leaning upon my sword, Came there a certain lord; neat, trimly dress'd; Fresh as a bridegroom; and his chin, new reap'd, Showed like stubble-land—at harvest home. He was perfumed like a milliner; And, 'twixt his finger and his thumb, he held A pouncet-box, which, ever and anon, He gave his nose. And still he smil'd, and talk'd, And as the soldiers—bore dead bodies by, He called them untaught knares, unmannerly, To bring a slovenly, unhandsome corse Betwixt the wind—and his mobility. With many holiday, and lady terms, He question'd me; amongst the rest, demanded My prisoners, in her majesty’s behalf; I then, all smarting with my wounds, being gall'd To be so pestered with a popinjay, Out of my grief—and my impatience, Answered negligently,–I know not what— He should, or should not; for he made me mad, To see him shine so brisk, and small so sweet, And talk so like a waiting gentlewoman, [mark,) Of guns, and drums, and wounds, (heaven save the And telling me the sovreign'st thing on earth, Was spermaceti—for an inward bruise: And that it was great pity, (so it was.) That villanous saltpetre—should be digged, Out of the bowels of the harmless earth, Which many a good, tall fellow had destroyed So cowardly; and, but for these vile guns, He would himself have been a soldier: This bald, unjointed chat of his, my lord, I answered indirectly, as I said; " And I beseech you, let not his report Come current, for an accusation, Betwixt my love, and your high majesty. Number. Unity—is an abstract conception, resembling primary, or incorporeal matter, in its general aggregate; one—appertains to things, capable of being numbered, and may be compared to matter, rendered visible under a particular form. Number is not infinite, any more than matter is; but it is the source of that indefinite divisibility, into equal parts, which is the property of all bodies. Thus, unity and one are to be distinguished from each other. Plenty-makes dainty.
Maxims. 1. Some are alert in the beginning, but negligent in the end. 2. Fear—is often concealed under a show of daring. 3. The remedy is often worse than the disease. 4. A faint heart newer won a fair lady. 5. No man is free, who does not govern himself. 6. An angry man opens his mouth, and shuts his eyes. 7. Such as give ear to slanderers, are as bad as slanderers themselves. 8. A cheerful manner denotes a gentle nature. 9. Proud looks lose hearts, but courteous words—win them. 10. Brevity is the soul of eloquence. Anecdote. Self-interest. When Dr. Franklin applied to the king of Prussia to lend his assistance to America, “Pray Doctor,” says he, “what is the object you mean to attain?” “Liberty, Sire,” replied the philosopher; “Liberty! that freedom, which is the birthright of all men.” The king, after a short pause, made this memorable answer: “I was born a prince, and am become a king; and I will not use the powers. I possess, to the ruin of my own trade.” Of Lying. Lying — supplies those who are addicted to it—with a plausible apology for every crime, and with a supposed shelter from every punishment. It tempts them to rush into danger—from the mere expectation of impunity; and, when practiced with frequent success, it teaches them to confound the gradations of guilt; from the effects of which there is, in their imaginations, at least one sure and common protection. It corrupts the early simplicity of youth; it blasts the fairest blossoms of genius; and will most assuredly counteract every effort, by which we may hope to improve the talents, and mature the virtues of those whom it infects. Varieties. 1. A very moderate power, exercised by perseverance, will effect—what direct force could never accomplish. 2. We must not deduce an argument against the use of a thing, from an occasional abuse of it. 3. Should we let a painful and cold attention to manner and voice, chill the warmth of our hearts, in our fervency and zeal in a good cause! 4. Youth—often rush on, impetuously, in the pursuit of every gratification, heedless of consequences. 5. The adherence to truth—produces much good; and its appearances—much mischief. 6. Every one, who does not grow better, as he grows older, is a spendthrift of that time, which is more precious than gold. 7. Obedience to the truths of the Word, is the life of all; for truths are the laws of the heavens, and of the church, obedience—implies the reception of them; so far as we receive, so far we are alive, by the coming of the kingdom within UlS. Whoe'er, amidst the sons Of reason, valor, liberty, and virtue, Displays distinguished merit, is a noble Of Nature's own making.
421. The Mon of Voice—resembles the trill in singing, and may be indicated in this manner, ; the voice ranging from a quarter of a tone, to several tones. It is made deep in the throat, with a dropping of the jaw; and when properly used, it is very effective and heart-stirring: especially, in the higher kinds of oratory. It heightens joy, mirth, rapture, and eacultation; adds pungency to scorn, contempt, and sarcasm: deepens the notes of sorrow, and enhances those of distress: often witnessed in children, when manifesting their delights. There are several degrees, from the gross to the most refined. 422. 1. Said Falstaff, of his ragged regiment, “I’ll not march through Coventry with them, that's flat; no eye hath seen such scarecrours.” Almost every word requires a kind of chuckle, especially the italic ones; and by making a motion with the chin, up and down, the shake of the voice will correspond to the sign, . 2. In this example we have an instance of a refined tremor of voice; but the right feeling is necessary to produce it naturally. Queen Cutharine said, in commending her daughter to Henry, “And a little to love her, for her mother's sake: who loved him—heaven knows how dearly.” The coloring matter of the voice is feeling—passion, which gives rise to the qualities of voice; thus, we employ harsh tones in speaking of what we disapprove, and euphoneous ones in describing the objects of love, complacency, admiration, &c. 423. In eactemporaneous speaking, or speaking from manuscript, (i.e. making it talk,) when the speaker is under the influence of strong passion, the voice is apt to be carried to the higher pitches: how shall he regain his medium pitch by changing the passion to one requiring low notes; thus, the surface of his flow of voice, will present the appearance of a country with mountains, hills, and dales. Elocution-relates more to the words and thoughts of others; oratory to our own. To become a good reader and speaker, one must be perfect in elocution, which relates to words: in logic, which relates to thoughts; and in rhetoric, which appertains to the affections: thus involving ends, causes, and effects. Anecdote. Aged Gallantry. A gallant old gentleman, by the name of Page, who was something of a rhymester, finding a lady's glove at a watering-place, presented it to her, with the following lines: “If from your glove—you take the letter g, Your glove—is lore—which I devote to—thee.” To which the lady returned the following answer: “If from your Page, you take the letter p, Your page—is age, and that won't do for me.”
Proverbs. 1. Proud persons have few real friends. 2. Mildness—governs better than anger. 3. No hope should influence us to do evil. 4. Few things are impossible to skill and industry. 5. Diligence—is the mistress of success. 6. Conscience is never dilatory in her warnings. 7. A rain hope flattereth the heart of a fool. 8. Moderate speed is a sure help to all proceedings. 9. Liberality of knowledge makes no one the poorer. 10. If you endeavor to be honest, you struggle with yourself. Names. A man, that should calleverything by its right name, would hardly pass through the streets, without being knocked down as a common enemy. Varieties. 1. In 1840, there were in the United States, five hundred and eighty-four thousand whites, who could not read or write; five thousand, seven hundred and seventy-three deaf and dumb ; five thousand and twenty-four blind; fourteen thousand five hundred and eight insane, or idiots, and two millions four hundred and eightyseven thousand slaves. 2. As our population increases thirty-four per cent. in ten years, at this rate, in 1850, our seventeen millions will be twenty-two millions: in 1860, thirty millions; and in 1900, ninetyfive millions. 3. The regular increase of the N. E. states is fourteen per cent; of the middle states twenty-five per cent.; of the southern twenty-two per cent.; and of the western—sixty-eight per cent. 4. Many persons are more anxious to know who Melchisedec was, or what was Paul's thorn in the flesh, than to know what they shall do to be saved. 5. To cure anger, sip of a glass of water, till the fit goes off. 6. An infallible remedy for anxiety—“cast thy burden upon the Lord, and he shall sustain thee.” TRY : TRY AGAIN. 'Tis a lesson—you should heed, Try, try again; If at first—you don’t succeed, Try, try again; Then your courage should appear, For, if you will persevere, You will conquer, never fear; Try, try again. Once, or twice, though you should fail, Try, try again; If you would, at last, prevail, Try, try again; If we strive, ’tis no disgrace, Though we may not win the race; What should you do in the case? Try, try again. If you find your task is hard, Try, try again; Time will bring you your reward, Try, try again; All that other folk's can do, why, with patience, should not you? Only keep this rule in tiew, TRY, TRY AGAIN.