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per bushel; rye from 75c. to Idl.; corn 75c.; oats 37fc.; beef 5c.; pork from 6dl. to 7dl. per cwt.; salt from 6dl. 50c. to 7dl. 50c. per barrel of 250lbs. net. In some of the counties,—Armstrong, Westmoreland, Alleghany, Washington, Greene, and Fayette—the prices were even lower: wheat 60c.; rye 30c; maise 33c.; buckwheat 30c.; potatoes 20c.; beef Sc.; pork and mutton 4c.; butter 6c.; eggs 4c. per dozen; a turkey 33c.; a hen 6c.
Price of Labour.—Monthly and day labourers have from 60c. to 70c. per day, with food: the wages of a labouring man per year, with food and lodging, is 140(11.; the wages of mechanics per day, with food, ldl. 50c.; a woman servant in the country, with food, 40c.; a journeyman bricklayer 2dl.; a printer ldl. 50c.
Price of Living in a farmer's house, boarding, lodging, and washing, 2dl. per week. It is well ascertained that a family may be comfortably supported each, per day, for 20c.; and even for l6c. in some counties,—Lancaster, Bucks, Lebanon, and Dauphin. On the western side of the mountains a resident has assured me, that a family may be supported at the rate of 10c each. A gentleman who lived many years at Carlisle, in reply to my inquiry on this subject, observed, that before the year 1812, the average expence of a family for living was a dollar per week; and all other expences amounted to nearly the same sum.
Internal Government.—The annual election for civil officers is on the second Tuesday of October. Inspectors, previously elected by the people, appoint persons who act as judges of the election, and the latter furnish a sealed statement of the election to the sheriff, who, within the space of thirty days, transmits it to the governor, by whom the names of the new members are immediately published. In Philadelphia, the aldermen, fifteen in number, are elected by the freeholders, every seven years; the common-council men, thirty in number, every third year. The mayor is elected annually by the aldermen, out of their own body; the recorder, every seven years, by the mayor and aldermen, from among the citizens; the mayor, recorder, eight aldermen, and sixteen common-council men, form a quorum.
Religion.—The principles of religious freedom were first established by the illustrious Penn. "If abridged of the freedom of their consciences, as to their religious profession and worship, no people can be happy; and, therefore, I do grant and declare, that no person inhabiting this province or territories, who shall acknowledge one Almighty God, the Creator, Ruler, and Upholder of the world, and live quietly under the civil government, shall in any case be molested, or prejudiced in his person, or estate, because of his conscientious persuasion or practice." Before the revolution Roman Catholics and Jews were excluded from a share in the government. The latter had no vote till the adoption of the new constitution, which placed every denomination on the same footing as to public
By the 7th article of the constitution of Pennsylvania, the legislature is bound to establish schools throughout the state, and to provide for the education of poor children gratuitously; and seminaries are to be established, for the promotion of the arts and sciences. Accordingly, the university of Philadelphia, Dickenson college, at Carlisle, and numerous academies and schools, have been established or encouraged by the legislature; and it has been resolved to endow an academy in each county, at the seat of justice. The university of Pennsylvania was instituted by some of the citizens of Philadelphia, among whom was Dr Franklin, who drew up the original plan, and the proposals for its execution. The college of Pennsylvania, which consisted of the academy and charitable schools, was incorporated in 1753; and, after several additions, it was erected, in 1769> into an university, named, "The University of the State of Pennsylvania," and placed under the direction of a new board of trustees. Some farther changes were afterwards made; and, by an act of the legislature in 1791, the salary of the provost was fixed at 500 dollars, viceprovost 450, professors, each 400, tutors, each 100.
The medical school of this seminary commenced in 1764, and has for many years enjoyed great celebrity. The present professors are: 1. Anatomy. 2. The institutes and practice of physic, and of clinical practice. 3. Surgery. 4. Materia medica, botany, and natural history. 5. Midwifery. 6. Chemistry. The first lectures on anatomy and surgery, in the United States, were delivered by Dr Shippen, in 1764. The number of students was then but 10; in 1807 it had increased to 390; and in 1811 to 500. The lectures commence the first Monday in November, and end on the first day of March. An extensive library is attached to the hospital, to which the students have free access, on paying the sum of ten dollars to the establishment. The professorship of languages and philosophy are: 1. Moral philosophy and logic. 2. Mathematics and natural philosophy. 3. Belles lettres. 4. Languages. In the year 1817 a new faculty was established, denominated the faculty of Natural science, consisting of a professorship of Natural philosophy. 2. Of mineralogy and chemistry. 3. Of botany. 4. Of natural history, including geology and zoology. 5. Of comparative anatomy.
College of Carlisle.—This college, which has the name of Dickinson, in honour of its founder, the honourable John Dickinson, of Pennsylvania, was established in 1783. Four years after it contained 80 students, and the present number is about 140. Under the direction of 40 trustees it has received from the state a grant of lands, to the extent of 10,000 acres, and 10,000 dollars in founded certificates. The library already consists of 3000 volumes, and the philosophical apparatus is extensive. There are professors of logic, metaphysics, mathematics, the learned languages, modern languages, and of natural philososophy and chemistry.
Franklin College.—This college was established at Lancaster, and named in honour of Dr Franklin. It was founded in 1787, by an association of Germans,