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attorney, with fees. 3. A marshal, with fees. 4. A clerk, with fees. *
Military Force.—In 1812 the militia consisted of
of a pound of good bread, with molasses and water. At dinner, half a pound of bread and beef, a bowl of soup and potatoes. Sometimes herrings in the spring. At supper, corn meal mush (mash?) and molasses, and sometimes boiled rice.
"The blacks eat at a separate table. There is also a table set apart for those who have committed offences for the first time, but not of sufficient enormity to merit the solitary cells; such as indolence, slighting work, impudence, &c.; and to such no meat is given. Every one finds his allowance ready on his trencher. The drink is molasses and water, which has been found to be highly useful, as a refreshing draught, and as a medicine. Spirituous liquors or beer never enter the walls of the prison. The cooks and bakers, who are convicts, are allowed thirty cents per day by the inspec. tors. The decency of deportment, and the expression of content, exhibited by the convicts at their meals, renders a view of them, while eating, highly interesting. No provisions are permitted to be sent to the convicts from without. ".
"5. The regularity of their lives almost secures them against disease. A physician, however, is appointed to attend the prison; a room is appropriated for the reception of the sick or hurt, and nurses to attend them. The effect of the new system has been seen in no particular more evidently than in the diminution of disease among the convicts.
"6. Religious instruction was one of the original remedies prescribed for the great moral disease, which the present penal system is calculated to cure. Divine service is generally performed every Sunday, in a large room appropriated solely for the purpose. Some clergyman or pious layman, volunteers his services, and discourses are delivered, suited to the situation and capacities of the audience. The prisoners in the cells are denied this indulgence i. good books are likewise distributed among them.
"Register of the United States for 18l6, p. 14>
§9,414-, of which 2005 were artillery and cavalry. The governor is commander-in-chief. No standing army can be kept up in time of peace, without the consent of the legislature; and the military are in strict subordination to the civil power. In time of peace no soldier can be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, except when required by law.
"7. Corporal punishments are strictly prohibited, whatever offence may have been committed. The keepers carry no weapons, not even a stick. The solitary cells and low diet have on all occasions been found amply sufficient to bring down the most determined spirit, to tame the most hardened villain that ever entered them. Of the truth of this there are striking cases on record. Some veterans in vice, with whom it was necessary to be. severe, have declared their preference of death by the gallows to a further continuance in that place of torment. In the cells, the construction of which renders conversation among those confined in them difficult, the miserable man is left to the greatest of all possible punishments, his own reflections. His food, which consists of only half a pound of bread per day, is given him in the morning; in the course of a few days or weeks, the very nature of the being is changed; and there is no instance of any one having given occasion for the infliction of this punishment a second time. Such is the impression which the reports of its effects have left among the convicts, that the very dread of it is sufficient to prevent the frequent commission of those crimes for which it is the known punishment, as swearing, impudence, rudeness, quarrelling, indolence repeated, or wilful injury to the tools, or to articles of manufacture.
"There are fourteen inspectors, three of whom are elected by the select and common councils in joint meeting, in May and November; two by the commissioners of the Northern Liberties, and two by the commissioners of Southwark, at the same time." VOI.. II. V
The military expenditure of the state, on account of the late war, was, in 1812, 32,700 dollars; 1813, 92,720 dollars; 1814, 470,000 dollars.
Finances.—The mode of assessment is as follows: "Every third year, at the general election in October, the people choose assessors, who, after having ascertained the value in ready money of all taxable property, return the names of two respectable citizens, freeholders of the district, to the county commissioners, by whom one is appointed collector. This officer informs the citizens of the rate of assessment, and day of appeal before the commissioners, after which the money is collected and paid into the hands of the city or county treasurer, appointed every three years by the county commissioners, whose compensation is about one and a quarter per cent, on all monies received. The following are taxable articles; lands, houses, mills, manufactories, ground rents, negro and mulatto slaves, cattle above four years old, offices of profit, trades and occupations, * tavern licences, free adults who follow no occupation. No tax can exceed one per cent, of the value of the property; and that for a single freeman, or particular occupation, is limited to the annual sum of ten dollars. t
f Ministers of the gospel and schoolmasters are excepted.
f The provincial revenue was derived from the interest of their paper currency, let out by the loan office on land security, amounting to 5000 pounds a.year; and, 2dly, From an excise on wine and rum, sold in public houses; the former at thirty shillings a pipe, the latter fourpence a gallon, amounting to about 3000 pounds currency. 7
The total receipts of 1813 amounted to 492,908 dollars, the total expenditure to 336,186 dollars. The capital of the state was found to be 6,508,748 dollars, consisting of,—
Bank stock, at par, 2,108,700
Monies due for lands, 3,918,329
6,508,748 The following is from the report of the auditor-general of 1815.
Receipts.—Summary statement of the receipts at the state treasury, for the year commencing on the 1st day of December 1814, and ending with the 30th day of November 1815.
Dlls. cts. Loans in pursuance of the provisions of the act of
February 1814, - - 100,000 0
Dividends on bank stock, &c. . - 313,033 90
Auction duties, - - - 123,233 3O
Lands, fees on lands, &c. • > 105,563 44
Tavern licences, - - - 24,039 92
-Militia exemption fines, arrears of money returned
by brigades, inspectors, &c. - 17,774 83
Tax on new banks, - - 4,550 52
Tax on certain offices, - - 8,477 63
Court fines, - - - 1,139 70
Old debts, - - - 1,301 19
Fees of the office of secretary of the commonwealth, 759 82 Miscellaneous receipts, « - 1,470 42
701,344 67 To which add the balance in the treasury, 1st December 1814, - - - 36,167 5
Dollars, 737,511 72
Expenditure.—Summary statement of the payments at the state treasury for the year commencing on the 1st of December 1814, and ending with the 30th day of November 1815:
Expences of government, - - 159,592 28
Of the monies borrowed under the provisions of the
act of Uth March 1815, - - 7,305 00
Miscellaneous, ... 4,873 40
To which add the balance in the treasury, 1st December 1815, - - - 76,776 40
Dollars, 737,511 The expences of the government were as follows: Dollars. 5,333 2,000 1,200 2666 18.915
Dollars. 41,378 7,839 13,157
Price of Provisions.—At Philadelphia, and on the eastern side of the mountains, the price of provisions is near double of that on the western side. In the latter, the value of different commodities, in 1817, was as follows: Wheat from 1 dollar to Idl. 29c.