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or turtle dove. Dr Barton remarks, * that all these are seen throughout the whole year. In the river Susquehannah, near Havre de Grace, the Canvas black duck, which is highly esteemed by epicures, is numerous in winter.

Fishes.-The eastern creeks abound with a white fish called salmon, with trout, shad, and herring, carp, eels, rock-fish ; the western waters with cat-fish, yel. low perch, trout, rock-fish, and pike. The trout of the ponds and smaller streams is very delicious. In July 1816, an eel was caught in the river Delaware, four feet in length, eight inches in circumference, and weighing five pounds and a half. The shad are taken in the Schuylkill by nets fifty or sixty yards long, and about six feet wide, which are sunk at the one side by pieces of lead, while the other side is floated by pieces of cork. One end is fastened to a stake, and the other is carried round with a sweep, so as to form a circular inclosure, within which the fish are secured. Some. times several hundreds are taken at a draft, weighing five pounds each. +

Insects.-An insect, supposed to be a species of lo. cust, but now known as a grasshopper, was first observed and described by the rector of the Swedish church in Philadelphia, the Reverend Andrew Sandall, in May 1715. He says, that the Indians roasted and ate them, and that they were devoured by swine and fowls. They died in the month of June. I They

* Fragments of the Natural History of Pennsylvania. 1799. + Sutcliffe's Travels, p. 271.

See fourth volume of the Medical Repository of New York, p. 71. have visited the country at the interval of seventeen or eighteen years. The caterpillar sometimes appears in great numbers, and devours the leaves of trees. The grass or meadow worm is another destructive insect which sometimes visits this country. Another insect, injurious to the pea, has multiplied in this state, whence it has proceeded northerly to places where formerly it was unknown. Grasshoppers and Heas are indigenous. The last devour the hares and squirrels.

The bug is also an inhabitant, but was imported, and is not found among the Indians. Of blistering flies, three or four species have been discovered. The musquito is sometimes troublesome in low vallies, but never in the elevated parts. The beetle, known by the name of tumble-bug, ( Scarabeus pilularis Americanus, ) is in many parts destructive to the Indian corn. Population.

Slaves * Free

included. Blacks. In 1685, the number of inhabitants was 7000 1749,

220,000 1755,

280,000 1774,


434,373 3737 6587 1800,


1706 14,564 1810,

810,091 795 22,492 which gives this state the third rank in the state of population. The three last enumerations were made according to law; the two first by estimate. The influence of the Quakers at that period prevented the


* The first slaves were imported in 1620 by the Hollanders ; and the Indians believed that they were mannitous, evil spirits or devils.


establishment of a poll-tax, or an incorporated militia, by means of which the number of inhabitants would have been more exactly ascertained. According to the census of 1810,

Males. Females. There were under sixteen,

201,070 192,712 Between sixteen and forty-five,

148,396 146,786 Above forty-five;

52,100 45,740 Diseases. The most general diseases are rheumatism and pleurisy. The first very common in the interior parts, where, at the age of eighteen or twenty, it becomes chronic, and refuses to yield to any remedy except change of climate, which generally restores the patient to health. The goitre is said to prevail in a slight degree in the neighbourhood of Pittsburg. In the Bald Eagle valley, in Mifflin county, situated about 200 miles north north-west of Philadelphia, a fever, accompanied with black vomiting, proved fatal to many of the inhabitants during the season of autumn and part of the winter of 1799. The weather was unusual. ly dry, and the disease was supposed to be generated by the miasms of the numerous ponds of this low valley. In the autumns of 1793 and 1797, the city of Philadelphia was visited by yellow fever; at the former period between 3000 and 4000, and at the last more than 1200 persons fell victims. The bill of mortality in this city, in 1808 and 1809, as ascertained by the board of health, was as follows: In 1808, adults 1046, children 1229; in 1809, adults 1023, children 981. The greatest number of deaths was in July and August. Though the sudden changes at Philadelphia be unfavourable to longevity, yet several persons have

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lived to the age of 100 years. In 1792 and 1793 two persons died, the one 105, the other 108 years and 9 months. In 1782 died Edward Drinker, aged 103 years. Civil or Administrative Division of the State of Penn.

sylvania, with the Population of each County and Chief Town in 1810, the year of the last Enumera

tion. Counties. Townships. Population. Chief Towns. Adams, • 18 15,152 Gettysburg, Alleghany, 15 · 25,317 Pittsburg, . 4,768 Armstrong, · 7


Kitaning, . . 309 Beaver, .

12,168 Beaver, i Bedford,

15,746 Bedford, . 547 Berks, ,

43,146 Reading, tp. i 3,462 Bradford, Bucks,

. 29 32.371 Newton, . 790 Butler,

7,346 Butler, tp. . 458 Cambria,


Edemburg, . . 75 Centre, . 11 10,681 Bellefont, . 303 Chester,

39,596 West Chester, 471 Clearfield,

1875 Clearfield, tp. . 875 Columbia, Crawford,

6,178 Meadville, 457 Cumberland, 18 26,757 Carlisle, . 2,491 Dauphin, , 15 31,883 Harrisburg, tp. 2,287 Delaware, 21 14,734 Chester, , 1,656 Erie, . . 14 : 3,758 Erie, . . 394 Fayette, 19 24,714 Union, .. 999 Franklin,

23,083 Chambersburg 2,000 Greene, . . 10 12,544 Green, tp.. 1,708 Huntington,

14,778 Huntingdon, í 676 Indiana, .


Indiana, . 200 Jefferston,

161 Jefferson, tp. 161 Lancaster,' m. 29 57,927 Lancaster, . 5,405 Lebanon,

Counties. Townships. Population. Chief Towns.

18,109 Wilkesbarre, 1,225 Lycoming,

11,006 Williamsport, . 344 Mackean, . 1 142 Smeth port, Mercer, ,

8,277 Mercer, Miffin, .

12,132 Lewistown, . 474 Montgomery, 30 29,703 Norristown, . . 1,336 Northampton,

38.149 Easton, Northumberland, 26 36,327 Northumberland, tp. 627 Philadelphia, 18 111,200

Philadelphia, city, 92,866

{ Ditto, county 18,344 Potter, . i 29 Cowdersport, Pike, . .

Milford, . 83 Schuylkill, Somerset, 15 11,284 Somerset,

489 Susquehanna, Tioga,


Wellsborough, Union, Venango, . 8 3,060 Franklin, .. 159 Warren, . . 2 827

Warren, Washington,

36,289 Washington, 1,301 Wayne, ..

4,125 Rothany, Westmoreland,

26,392 Greensburg, 685 York, : 22 31,958 York, . 2,847 50

651 810,091 The Constitution of the commonwealth of Pennsyl. vania was established by the general convention held at Philadelphia in 1776, * and was amended in the year 1790. The legislative power is vested in a General Assembly, consisting of a Senate and House of Reprem

* This act, of which the charter of Penn formed the basis, was drawn up by Sir William Junes, a lawyer distinguished by his eru. dition and patriotism.

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