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were twenty cotton-mills in the county of Essex, with 32,500 spindles. The produce of yarn per week was estimated at L. 300,000, which, converted into cloth at forty cents a yard, would amount to 1,673,000 dollars a-year. The whole manufactures of New Jersey, in 1810, were valued at 7>057,59t dollars, besides the work of mahogany saw-mills, amounting to 6000 dollars. A

Animal Substances.—At Newark the manufacture of shoes is carried on to a great extent. There are Tanneries at Trenton, Newark, and Elizabethtown. Of Woollen manufactories in 1814 there were ten in Essex county, nine in Salem, eleven in Sussex, eight in Burlington, five in Gloucester, four in Somerset, three in Cumberland, six in Morris, two in Middlesex.

Butter and Cheese are made in great quantity for the supply of the markets of New York and Philadelphia. |S

Commerce.—From the earliest period the principal commerce has been carried on with New York; but a small quantity of oil, fish, grain, and other provision, was annually shipped for Portugal, Spain, and the Canaries. The paper money, which, in this as in the other colonies, was the only currency, amounted, before the revolution, to L. 60,000 sterling; and as New York and Pennsylvania did not receive each other's bills, payments between them were made in the paper of New Jersey. The exports consist of live cattle, fruit, iron, butter and cheese, hams, cider, flax-seed, leather, lumber; but as the largest proportion of the produce is carried to the markets of New York and Philadelphia, the annual value is not well ascertained. From those markets again the greatest part of the imports are drawn. The foreign commerce is very inconsiderable, though there is an excellent harbour at Perth Amboy * into which vessels safely enter with one tide. The exports, which, in 1799, amounted to 9722 dollars, in 1810 increased to 430,267 dollars. The shipping, belonging principally to Amboy, amounted in 1811 to 43,000 tons. I>

Bridges.Hackinsac bridge, across the river of the same name, constructed of wood, is 1000 feet in length. Pasaick bridge, across the Pasaick river, is 900 feet in length. The bridge across the Rariton river at New Brunswick, completed in 179J, is 1000 feet long, and sufficiently wide for two carriages abreast, besides a foot-way. It is supported by ten stone pillars. The bridge over the Delaware river at Trenton is 1008 feet in length, and 36 in breadth. It consists of five wooden arches of 194 feet span, supported by stone piers. The platform, or carriage-way, is suspended from these arches, and being covered, affords shelter to the passengers.

Roads.—That from Trenton to Elizabethtown, through New Brunswick, forty-three miles in length, cost 2500 dollars per mile. Another turnpike road

* So called from the Earl of Perth, (James Drummond,) one of the proprietors of this place, and Amboy, from the Indian word umbo, which signifies a point.

from New Brunswick to Easton at the mouth of the Leheigh, a distance of forty-three miles, is nearly executed at an expence of more than 3000 dollars a mile.

Canals.—It is proposed to make a canal from Brunswick to Trenton, to complete the inland navigation between New York and Philadelphia. Its length will be twenty-nine miles, and it is to run in a straight line through a level country. The only eminence, which is about 136 feet high, is on the banks of the river between the tide water and the canal. The whole cost is estimated at upwards of 800,000 dollars. Another canal, recommended by the legislature, is to pass through Seakank, called Squam Beach, in the township of Havel, Monmouth county, and to form a communication between the main ocean and Cape May Bay, nearly opposite the mouth of Militecunk river, which, when cleared of obstructions, will shorten the passage from New York to some points of the bay, and will become a safe harbour.

Books and Documents relating to the History and Geography of this State.

Budd, (Thomas) a proprietor and settler, published a description of West Jersey in a pamphlet, about the year 1686, referred to by Smith, p. 309'

Smith's (Samuel) History of the Colony of Nova Cesarea, or New Jersey, containing an account of its first settlement, progressive improvements, the original and present constitution, and other events, to the year 1721, with some particulars since; and a short view of its present state. Burlington, in New Jersey. 1 Vol. in Svo. pp. 572.

Morse's Geography, article New Jersey.

CHAPTER XV.

PENNSYLVANIA.*

Situation And Boundaries.—Pennsylvania is situated between 39°, 43°, and 42° of north latitude, and 2° 20' east, and 3° 3(f west longitude from Washington. It is bounded on the north by New York and Lake Erie; south by Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; east by New York and New Jersey; west by Ohio and Virginia. The form of this state is nearly a parallelogram, the length of which, from east to west, is about 273 miles, and the breadth from north to south 153; area, 24,500 square miles, or 27,200,000 acres.

Aspect of the Country and Nature of the Soil.— The great chain of mountains, called the Alleghany, runs across the state from north-east to south-west. Between their numerous ridges there are delightful vallies, with a very rich soil. Every kind of soil is to be found in this state; but a great proportion of the land is of an excellent quality. The poorest soil is in

• So called from Penn, the name of the original proprietor; to which Sylva was added, on account of the fine forests which covered the whole surface at the time of his arrival, in 1681.

the maritime parts, where it consists generally of a light sandy loam. The soil of the southern and northwestern parts, and of all the vallies, is a black mould, or rich loam, which is extremely fertile. All the new forest land in general has several inches of a light black mould, formed by the decay of vegetable substances. In some places, especially in the western counties, the sides of hills, which have been washed by heavy rains, are thin and stoney. Erie county, near the lake of that name, is very productive, the soil consisting of a sandy loam, in some places intermixed with gravel, covered by two or three inches of vegetable mould. In Lancaster, Berks, Lebanon, and Dauphin counties, the soil is excellent. The two first are remarkably populous and wealthy. The farmers, who are mostly Germans, have generally in hand from 50 to 400 acres of land. In the counties of Dauphin and Lancaster, which are watered by the Susquehannah, thriving towns and villages appear at the distance of every four or five miles. The Cumberland valley, extending from the river Susquehannah to the county of Washington in Maryland, has a fine soil, reposing on a bed of limestone. In crossing the north mountain, which bounds this valley to the north-west, the country becomes hilly and less fertile.

Temperature.—The upper parts of this state, though lying under the same latitude as Naples in Italy, and Montpellier in France, are far from enjoying a similar climate. The low maritime, the hilly, and the mountainous tracts, are all liable to a great change of temperature; but, upon the whole, this is considered one

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