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à constant exchange of commodities with the more northern states. In 1804, the exports from New Orleans amounted to 1,600,362 dollars. The quantity of sugar imported into the United States, in 1802,

1744, the trade with Florida, Havannah, and the Bay of Cliampeachy, was valued at 150,000 pieces of eight. A great quantity of productions were annually brought down the Mississippi, in convoys, at the latter end of December, and the boats returned in the middle of February. Immense quantities of lumber were sent to the Leeward Islands ; * maize, beans, and rice, to St Domingo. Note withstanding this, the trade was unprofitable to the company, to France, and to Spain. During five years, when the country be. longed to Crozat, the whole trade yielded but 300,000 livres; and the expences amounted to 425,000, leaving a balance against him of 125,000 livres.

Mr De Vergennes gave the following statement of the commerce of this country during the time of his ministry. +

Livres. 38 indigo establishments, manufacturing yearly 100,000 lbs. at five livres,

500,000 200,000 deer skins, at 40 sous,

400,000 300,000 pounds of tobacco,

80,000 Planks, staves, &c.

250,000 Rice, peas, beans,

50,000 Salt hides, bear and buffalo skins,

20.000 Pitch and tar,

60,000 Tallow, 40,000, at 10 sous,

20.000 Foreign commerce,

300.000

Expence of the king in bills of exchange,

1,680,000 . 1.800.000

Total, 3.48.), 00 • In the decree of the Superior Council, in 1768, against Ulloa, it is stated that this trade amounted to eighty or a hundred cargoes, which brought an annual income to the colony of 300,000 livres.

+ Memoire sur la Louisiane, p. 178.

from Louisiana and the Floridas, * amounted to 1,576,933 pounds. † In 1809, the exports were, cotton, 3500 bales ; sugar, 12,000 barrels ; tobacco, 3000; flour, 250,000.

300

Estimate of Produce received Annually at New

Orleans. Cotton, bales, 60,000 Taffia, gallons, 180,000 Sugar, hhds.

11,000 Rum, do. Molasses, gallons, 500,000 Beer, barrels,

1,000 Tobacco, hhds. 7,000 Horses, carrots, 10,000 Cider, barrels,

1,000 Flour, in barrels, 75,000 Apples, do.

5,000 Corn in ear, barrels, 60,000 Potatoes, do.

5,000 Meal barrels, 1,000 Butter, lbs.

10,000 Rice, barrels, 9,000 Lard, do.

250,000 Beans, do. 3,000 Soap, boxes,

10,000 Beef, do. 5,000 Canales, do.

2,000 Pork, do.

4,000 Tallow. Bacon, lbs.

700,000 Bees' wax, lbs. 30,000 Hemp, cwt.

3,000 Saltpetre, do. 50,000 Yaros, reels of 1000 lbs. 2,000 Gunpowder, barrels,

4,500 Cordage, cwt.

5,000 Linseed oil, do. 300 Baling, coils,

3,000 Pot ashes. Bagging, pieces, 10,000 Indigo, lbs.

7,000 Linen, coarse, do. 2,500 Kettles and castings, Whisky, gallons, 200,000 points,

200,000 Gin, do. 50,000 Lead, cwt.

6,000

* When the Floridas belonged to Great Britain, the commodities transported to Pensacola, the capital of West Florida, amounted to L. 97,000; those exported from Pensacola to Great Britain to 63,000. See the American Traveller, London, 1769.

+ See Jefferson's Report on the Productions of this country.

(Myrtica cerifera) contain a thick oily substance, which is separated by boiling water, and, when bleached, by a chemical process, is employed for candles and other domestic uses. The discovery is due to an Eng. lish carpenter named Martel, by whom it was made known to Alexander, a surgeon and chemist, who found out the secret of bleaching it, as is practised with the bees' wax of Europe. Barbe Espagnole, * (Tillandsia usneoides,) a parasite plant, which covers the trees of this country, affords nourishment for cattle, and is also employed to stuff mattresses and saddles, for which purpose it is beaten, washed in an alkaline solution, and dried ; it then has the appearance of long black threads, and is so durable, that it is considered as incorruptible. It is also mixed with mud, for the pur. pose of building. The bark of the linden tree is employed to make cords ; that of the cypress to cover houses, in which situation it will last from ten to twelve years. A fine liquor is extracted from the fruit of the persimon, which ripens after the first frosty wea. ther; a bushel of fruit yields about a gallon of spirits. The fruit is an excellent astringent, and a sovereign remedy for the dysentery. The seeds, reduced to powder, infused twenty-four hours in cold water, and drank fasting, are administered for the gravel. The ripe fruit is formed into a sort of bread, which is dried in the sun, and reserved for long voyages, + like sea

* So called by the natives, from a fancied resemblance to the beards of the Spaniards.

+ Bossu, Vol. II. p. 153.

biscuit. The fruit of the red mulberry is employed to make vinegar. The liquidambar, copalm, or sweet gum tree, yields a balm, or aromatic resinous substance, of an agreeable odour, and not inferior to that of Peru. Animals wounded in the chace are said to heal the wound by rubbing it against the balm which exudes from this tree. On account of its fine odour it was formerly burnt in the temples of Mexico. This substance is procured, in spring, from an incision made in the trunk, on the southern side. The plane tree bark af. fords a red dye. Sassafras tree is valuable for its medicinal qualities. Barbed-creeper is a febrifuge and stomachic. Milla pertuis affords an excellent oil for wounds.

The surplus productions of an immense country, watered by the Ohio, Missouri, Red river, and other great branches of the Mississippi, will naturally descend to New Orleans, and be thence transported to Mexico or the West Indies. * Besides, there will be

* In 1721, when this colony belonged to France, the directors of the Company of the West fixed the price of the merchandises which the inhabitants should bring and deposit in the magazines,tobacco at 25 livres the quintal ; rice at 12; French merchandise was sold at Biloxi, Mobile, and New Orleans, at 50 per cent. prcfit on the invoice; at Natchez and the Yazoos, at 70 per cent.; 80 at the Arkansas and Natchitoches; 50 at the Alibamas, and 100 at the Illinois. Tobacco, which cost four sous in merchandise, and two in money, was sold, in France, at 50 sous, by the agent of the company. With the Royal Company of Havannah there was a treaty of commerce, by which pitch was to be delivered at two piastres a barrel; tar at three, and boards at two reals each. f In

+ Vaudreuil's Letters.

a constant exchange of commodities with the more northern states. In 1804, the exports from New Orleans amounted to 1,600, 362 dollars. The quantity of sugar imported into the United States, in 1802,

1744, the trade with Florida, Havannah, and the Bay of Champeachy, was valued at 150,000 pieces of eight. A great quantity of productions were annually brought down the Mississippi, in convoys, at the latter end of December, and the boats returned in the middle of February. Immense quantities of lumber were sent to the Leeward Islands; * maize, beans, and rice, to St Domingo. Not. withstanding this, the trade was unprofitable to the company, to France, and to Spain. During five years, when the country be. longed to Crozat, the whole trade yielded but 300,000 livres; and the expences amounted to 425,000, leaving a balance against him of 125,000 livres.

Mr De Vergennes gave the following statement of the commerce of this country during the time of his ministry. +

Livres. 38 indigo establishments, manufacturing yearly 100,000 lbs. at five livres,

500,000 200,000 deer skins, at 40 sous,

400,000 300,000 pounds of tobacco,

80,000 Planks, staves, &c.

250,000 Rice, peas, beans,

50,000 Salt hides, bear and buffalo skins,

20.000 Pitch and tar,

60,000 Tallow, 40,000, at 10 sous,

20.000 Foreign commerce,

300.000

Expence of the king in bills of exchange,

1,680,000 . 1.800.000

Total, 348.), .00 • In the decree of the Superior Council, in 1768, against Ulloa, it is stated that this trade amounted to eighty or a hundred cargoes, which brought an annual income to the colony of 300,000 livres.

+ Memoire sur la Louisiane, p. 178.

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