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he is called, is from 400 to 500 dollars; of a Creole negro, active and intelligent, 1000 dollars. Negro tradesmen are let or hired, at from twenty to thirty dollars a month; negresses, from twelve to fifteen dollars. The profits of a good slave are estimated at 140 dollars. The price of boarding is about one dollar per day; in some of the best houses, double this sum. In 1808, the common price of French boardinghouses was forty-five dollars a month, without supper or wine; American boarding-houses, thirty-two dollars. An ox for the plough may be bought for fifteen dollars; a cow for nearly the same price. Fat oxen of the Atakapas and Opelousas meadows bring from six to ten dollars; horses, from twenty-five to sixty dollars.
Table of Profits resulting from the employment of Fifty Workmen on a Farm in Louisiana. *
The yearly income of many of the planters amounts to 20,000 dollars; and it is said not to be uncommon to mark from 1000 to 3000 calves in a season, and to have from 10,000 to 20,000 head of fine cattle. *
Constitution.—In January 1812, a convention of the representatives of the people met at New Orleans, and framed and signed a constitution, which was afterwards approved by the congress of the United States. This constitution resembles those of the other states of the Union, though more precautions seem to have been taken against corruption and abuse of power. The legislative authority is vested in a house of representatives and a senate. The electors consist of every free white male citizen, who has attained the age of twenty-one years, who has resided in the county in which he votes one year next preceding the election, and who has paid state tax the last six months prior thereto; and all free white male citizens, who have purchased lands from the United States, have the right of voting, if qualified by age and residence as above mentioned. A representative must be a free white male citizen, of twenty-one years of age, an owner of landed property to the amount of 500 dollars, and he must have resided in the state during two years immediately preceding the election, and the last year in the county in which he is elected. Representatives are chosen for two years; they meet on the first Monday in January. To preserve an equal and uniform representation, the number of all the qualified electors is to be ascer
* Western Gazetteer, p. 150.
tained every four years. Senators are elected for the term of four years, and one half of the number is renewed every second year. A senator must bea citizen of the United States at the time of his election, a resident of the state four years immediately previous thereto, and of the district one year; he must have landed property to the value of 1000 dollars on the tax list. The senate is divided into fourteen senatorial districts, which return fourteen senators, and the number of districts is not to be altered. The members of the general assembly receive four dollars a day as a compensation for their services. Clergymen and teachers are excluded from the general assembly, as well as from all offices of trust and profit under the state. The executive power is vested in a chief magistrate, with the title of governor, who is elected by the citizens for the term of four years, and is ineligible for the four succeeding years. He must be thirty years of age, a citizen of the United States six years previous to his election, and a proprietor of land to the amount of 5000 dollars. No member of the congress of the United States, or person holding any office, or minister of any religious society, is eligible to the office of governor. The governor is commander-in-chief of the army, navy, and militia of the state, except when called into the service of the United States; but he cannot command in person in the field, unless by a resolution of the general assembly. The governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, nominates judges, sheriffs, and all other officers, whose offices are established by the constitution, and whTse appointments are not otherwise provided for. The governor has also power to fill up vacancies during the recess of the legislature, to remit fines and forfeitures, and, with the approbation of the senate, to grant reprieves and pardons, except in cases of impeachment. Every person convicted of having given or offered a bribe to procure his election, is disqualified from serving as governor, senator, or representative.
Judiciary.—The judicial power is vested in a supreme court and inferior court. The jurisdiction of the former extends to all civil cases, when the matter in dispute exceeds the sum of 300 dollars. The judges of both hold their office during good behaviour. The supreme court consists of not less than three, nor of more than five judges, the majority forming a quorum. The salary of each is fixed at 5000 dollars. The state is divided into two districts of appellate jurisdiction, the eastern and western.
Military Force.—The militia, consisting of all the free white men of the state, are to be armed and disciplined for its defence in the manner which the legislature may deem most expedient.
Forts.—Fort Plaquemines, thirty miles above the Balize, or mouth of the Mississippi, contains a small garrison for the purpose of examining all vessels that enter the river. Fort Darby, at the communication of the Teme Oujc Bceiifs stream with Lake Lery. Fort Petites Coquilles, at the junction of the Rigolets with Ponchartrain. Fort St Philip, at the Plaquemines bend, to prevent the ascent of vessels of war. Fort St Charles, on the north-eastern side of New Orleans. Fort St John, at the entrance of the Bayou St John into Lake Ponchartrain, to protect the city against the approach of an enemy. Fort St Leon, at the lower extremity of the English turn. Fort Miro, on the Washita river, in 32° 30'. In the attack against New Orleans in 1814, the British army, under General Packenham, approached the river Mississippi through the marshy surface between the Terre aux Bceufs and St John's stream, near the Vilere Canal.
Religion.—The clergy, before the late cession of Louisiana, consisted of a non-resident bishop, who had 4000 dollars a-year, from the revenue of certain bishopricks in Mexico and the isle of Cuba; of two canons, with a revenue each of 600 dollars; and of twenty-five cures, of which five were for New Orleans, and twenty for the different parishes of the provinces, having each from 360 to 480 dollars ayear. All these disbursements, except the pay of the bishop, and the expences of the chapel, were paid by the treasury of New Orleans, * and amount
* When this colony belonged to Spain, the king drew from it the yeaily sum of 191,000 dollars. The expences amounted to 378,000; hence the annual loss, owing to exclusire privileges and commercial monopoly, was 187,000 dollars. The most considerable source of revenue was a duty of six per cent, paid on the purchase or transfer of merchandise. An impost of two per cent, was derived from legacies and inheritances of collaterals, exceeding 2000 dollars; and fourper cent, on legacies made by a testator to persons out of the line of relationship; on civil employments, of which the emoluments exceeded 300 dollars a-year, onehalf was retained the first year, called Media Annata; vessels going