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an acre is considered as a common crop. The Hessian Ay, or wheat insect, ( Tipula tritice,) has, in some years, done great injury to the crop.
Public Garden. In a wild and romantic situation, on Bergen Creek, nearly opposite the city of New York, thirty acres of land were purchased, for a garden and fruitery, by the unfortunate Lewis XVI., who, as proprietor, became a naturalized citizen, by an act of the legislature.
Manufactures. The farmers generally make their own clothing; but various manufactures on a large scale have been lately introduced, of woollen and cotton articles, leather, glass, and paper. Those of iron and leather are more than equal to the consumption. The manufactures are greatly indebted to an association formed at Newark for their encouragement. Leather is manufactured on a large scale at Newark, Trenton, and Elizabethtown. At the first mentioned place there is an extensive shoe manufactory. But the iron manufactures, which are established in the counties of Morris, Sussex, Burlington, and Gloucester, are the most valuable. D
Products of Mineral Substances in 1810.-The Iron Works in the counties of Gloucester, Burlington, Sussex, and Morris, produce annually 1200 tons of bariron, eighty of nail rods, besides a great quantity of hollow ware and castings.
Dollars. In 1810, Glass, square feet,
322,000 7 120,000 Bottles,
7,600] Potters' ware,
35,850 Gunpowder, 2 mills, pounds, 68,700 61,125 Paints, tons,
0 There is a copper mine in this state from which cop
per was procured in large quantities by the Schuyler family, and sent to England before the revolution." L. 100,000 is said to have been offered for the ground which contained the vein. It has been twice leased, but, from some cause unexplained, has not been worked since the revolution. The mine is situated in a stratified hill, six miles in length, and two in breadth, rising with a gentle ascent to the height of ninety-six feet above the level of the sea. On the south-west side three shafts were sunk. The produce near the surface was from twelve to twenty-five per cent.; of the north branch, and of the deepest vein, fifty-five. The vitreous copper ore, of a dark blue colour, gave from seventy-five to ninety per cent. of copper, and from four to seven of silver. When fine copper sold in England for L. 75 sterling per ton, this ore was valued at L. 70. *
Products of Vegetable Substances in 1810.
6,000 Chocolate, pounds, 300,000, 60,000
Of cider a great quantity is made at Newark, of excellent quality. On the 1st of October 1814 there
+ Proposals for establishing an association for working mines, and manufacturing metals in the United States. Philadelphia, 1796.
were twenty cotton-mills in the county of Essex, with 32,500 spindles. The produce of yarn per week was estimated at L. 300,000, which, converted into cloth at forty cents a yard, would amount to 1,673,000 dollars a-year. The whole manufactures of New Jersey, in 1810, were valued at 7,057,594 dollars, besides the work of mahogany saw-mills, amounting to 6000 dollars.
Animal Substances. At Newark the manufacture of shoes is carried on to a great extent. There are Tanneries at Trenton, Newark, and Elizabethtown. Of Woollen manufactories in 1814 there were ten in Essex county, nine in Salem, eleven in Sussex, eight in Burlington, five in Gloucester, four in Somerset, three in Cumberland, six in Morris, two in Middle
sex. Û Butter and Cheese are made in great quantity for
the supply of the markets of New York and Philadelphia. A.
Commerce.- From the earliest period the principal commerce has been carried on with New York; but a small quantity of oil, fish, grain, and other provision, was annually shipped for Portugal, Spain, and the Canaries. The paper money, which, in this as in the other colonies, was the only currency, amounted, bea fore the revolution, to L. 60,000 sterling ; and as New York and Pennsylvania did not receive each other's bills, payments between them were made in the paper
of New Jersey. 0.. The exports consist of live cattle, fruit, iron, but
ter and cheese, hams, cider, flax-seed, leather, lumber;
but as the largest proportion of the produce is carried to the markets of New York and Philadelphia, the an. nual value is not well ascertained. From those markets again the greatest part of the imports are drawn. The foreign commerce is very inconsiderable, though there is an excellent harbour at Perth Amboy * into which vessels safely enter with one tide. The exports, which, in 1799, amounted to 9722 dollars, in 1810 increased to 430,267 dollars. The shipping, belonging principally to Amboy, amounted in 1811 to 43,000 tons. D ,
Bridges.-Hackinsac bridge, across the river of the same name, constructed of wood, is 1000 feet in length. Pasaick bridge, across the Pasaick river, is 900 feet in length. The bridge across the Rariton river at New Brunswick, completed in 1795, is 1000 feet long, and sufficiently wide for two carriages abreast, besides a foot-way. It is supported by ten stone pillars. The bridge over the Delaware river at Trenton is 1008 feet in length, and 36 in breadth. It con. sists of five wooden arches of 194 feet span, supported by stone piers. The platform, or carriage-way, is suspended from these arches, and being covered, affords shelter to the passengers. .
Roads.—That from Trenton to Elizabethtown, through New Brunswick, forty-three miles in length, cost 2500 dollars per mile. Another turnpike road
• So called from the Earl of Perth, (James Drummond,) one of the proprietors of this place, and Amboy, from the Indian word ambo, which signifies a point.
from New Brunswick to Easton at the mouth of the Leheigh, a distance of forty-three miles, is nearly executed at an expence of more than 3000 dollars a mile.
Canals. It is proposed to make a canal from Bruns. wick to Trenton, to complete the inland navigation between New York and Philadelphia. Its length will be twenty-nine miles, and it is to run in a straight line through a level country. The only eminence, which is about 136 feet high, is on the banks of the river between the tide water and the canal. The whole cost is estimated at upwards of 800,000 dollars. Another canal, recommended by the legislature, is to pass through Seakank, called Squam Beach, in the township of Havel, Monmouth county, and to form a communication between the main ocean and Cape May Bay, nearly opposite the mouth of Militecunk river, which, when cleared of obstructions, will shorten the passage from New York to some points of the bay, and will become a safe harbour.
Books and Documents relating to the History and
Geography of this State. Budd, (Thomas) a proprietor and settler, published a description of West Jersey in a pamphlet, about the year 1686, referred to by Smith, p. 309.
Smith's (Samuel) History of the Colony of Nova Cesarea, or New Jersey, containing an account of its first settlement, progressive improvements, the original and present constitution, and other events, to the year 1721, with some particulars since; and a short view of its present state. Burlington, in New Jersey. i Vol. in 8vo. pp. 572.
Morse's Geography, article New Jersey.