Page images


nessee, which has reduced the expence of transport. ing goods nearly one half.

Bridges. There are few bridges worthy of notice. That across the Ogechee river is said to yield a considerable yearly income. At Augusta, a tollbridge, across the Savannah, has been lately erected, above the reach of any rise of the water.

Harbours.-Sunbury, about forty miles south from Savannah, has a safe and convenient harbour. Frederica, on the island of St Simond, in latitude 31° 15', has a deep channel and safe harbour. St Mary's, on the north bank of St Mary's river, has also a good harbour for vessels drawing seventeen feet water.

Steam-boats have been established on the Savannah river. One, called the Enterprise, made the passage from Savannah to Augusta, with two freight boats dragging, in eight days, and returned with the current in three and a half. The pole boats require fourteen days to ascend the same distance, and from five to seven to descend. Two other steam-boats are now building, by a company, for the purpose of dragging freighted boats to and from Augusta.

There is a light-house at Tybee, and at St Simond's island.

Books relating to the History and Geography of this

State. Hewett's (Rev. ) History of this State, including the Caro. linas.

Hutchins's (Thomas, geographer to the United States) “ Historical Narrative and Topographical Description of Louisiana and West Florida,” which comprehends a description of the country nown by the name of the Georgia western derritory.

Sibbald's (Georges) Noles and Observations on the Pine Lands of Georgia, &c. with a Geographical Sketch of the State. 1801, Augusta, 8vo. pp. 71.

Morse's Geography, article Georgia.
Macall's History of Georgia.

Account of the Designs of the Trustees for establishing the Co. jony of Georgia. London.

A New Voyage to Georgia. 8vo, London, 1739.

A New and Accurate Account of the Provinces of South Caro. lina and Georgia. London, 1733.

Martyn's (Benjamin) Reasons for establishing the Colony of Georgia, &c. 1733, London, 4to, pp. 48.

Tably, (John, D. D.) the Law of Liberty, at the Opening of the Provincial Congress of Georgia, in 8vo. Almon, 1776.

1683. Stokes's (Anthony, barrister at law, his majesty's chief. justice of Georgia) View of the Constilution of the British Colonies in North America and the West Indies, at the time the Civil War broke out. I vol. London, pp. 555.

State of Facts, showing the Right of certain Companies to the Lands lately purchased by them from the State of Georgia, in 8vo, Pp. 64, 1795.

Grant and Constitution of the Mississippi Company, published by Order of the Directors. Augusta, in 8vo, pp. 39, 1795.

Smith's (James Edward) Natural History of the rare Lepidipte. rous Insects of Georgia, from the Observations of Mr John Abbot, who resided many years in this province. 2 vols. in folio, pp. 208, 1797. With beautiiul engravings of the insects, and the trees and plants on which they feed.



SITUATION AND BOUNDARIES.—Louisiana is situated between 29° and 33° of north latitude, and between 19° 30' and 17° of west longitude from Washington. It is bounded on the north by the Missouri territory, west by the Sabine river, from its mouth to the 32d degree of latitude, and thence by a meridian line to the 33d parallel of latitude; east by the state of Mississippi; and south by the Gulf of Mexico. Area, 45,860 square miles.

Aspect of the Country, and Nature of the Soil.The surface bounded by the Mississippi and Pearl rivers on the west and east, by the rivers Ibberville and Amite and lake Ponchartrain on the south, and by the Sist degree of latitude on the north, which was formerly a part of West Florida, contains 4850 square miles, and consists of an almost unbroken plain, rising with a gentle elevation from the south. It is divided into four parishes, New Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, St Helena, and St Tamany. The soil is light, and covered with pine except along the water courses, where it is generally fertile, and favourable to the growth of some of the most valuable trees, oak, walnut, cypress, ash, magnolia, &c. For twenty miles north

[ocr errors]

from the lakes Maurepas, Ponchartrain, and Borgne, the soil is level and sandy, dry in the upper parts, in the lower marshy Baton Rouge, near the southwestern .corner of this tract, rises about thirty feet above the highest swell of the Mississippi, and is the first elevated ground from the mouth of the river, from which it is 150 miles distant in a straight line. From this place to Pinckneyville, on the same side of the river, on the 31st parallel of latitude, a distance of 50 miles in a direct line, there is an undulating surface, covered with trees of various kinds, and many rich tracts of land. The undulating pine lands, though light and sandy, are favourable to the growth of cotton and maize. This eastern portion of Louisiana is rapidly increasing in population, owing to the advantages it affords for the culture of cotton, and the manufacture of pitch and tar. From the southern limits of this tract to the Gulf of Mexico, the surface is almost a dead level, intersected by the Mississippi, and by numerous streams and lakes which are generally outlets for its surplus waters after the annual inundation. This part of the country, with the districts extending along the Atchafalaya river, and the mouth of Red river, form the Delta of the Mississippi, the length of which exceeds 200 miles, and the greatest breadth is about 100. The drier parts of this and the country south-westward are believed to be the best adapted for the cultivation of sugar, of any land in the United States; and sugar is now raised in considerable quantities on the banks of the Mississippi, the Lafourche, the Teche, and at other places. With a few exceptions, the whole southern coast of Louisiana,

from Chandeleur Bay to the Sabine river, to the distance of twenty or thirty miles from the sea, is a morass on a level, with high water without trees or shrubs. Beyond this distance trees begin to appear, and the soil in many places is rich. Banks of fertile land ac. company all the considerable streams, and in the marshy ground these banks form the only valuable portion of the soil. When the French took possession of the banks of the Mississippi there were but two trees to the distance of eleven leagues from its mouth; and the first settlements, in 1752, were so nearly destroyed by land floods on one side, and sea inundations on the other, that it was found necessary to abandon them; but the surface became afterwards solid, having risen three feet in fifteen years. The Balize, a small fort erected at this period at the mouth of the river, was found, in 1770, to be a mile distant by the formation of alluvial soil ; and the barracks of St Carlos, erected by Don Ulloa, in 1767, soon disappeared. Hence, it has been calculated that the land encroaches upon the sea about two leagues every century, and it has been supposed,' that a cypress tree, found at the depth of twenty feet, near New Orleans, must have been buried there twelve times this period. The neck of land which shoots out to the mouth of the Mississippi, and the peninsula which extends into a northeastern direction between Lake Borgne and Chandeleur Bay, are low and marshy, and nearly on a level with the surrounrling waters; but the borders of the river, above the Plaquemine Bend, are elevated and fertile, and favourable to the growth of maize, rice, tobacco, indigo, cotton, and sugar.

« PreviousContinue »