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late. All these institutions are to be supported out of the proceeds of 50,000 acres of land, and L.6000 sterling, in bonds, houses, and town lots in Augusta. Public property, to the amount of 1000 pounds, has been appropriated by the legislature for building and furnishing an academy in each county. About eight or nine years ago an academy was endowed at Lexington, seventeen miles from Athens, by Mr Mason, a native of Ireland.

Humane Institutions. In the year 1740 the first charitable institution, an orphan house, was founded by Whitefield, the celebrated preacher, near the seashore, at Savannah, on a spot of land granted by the state-trustees for this purpose. In 1749 Lady. Hun. tingdon purchased a tract of 500 acres, and stocked it with black slaves, for the support of this establish ment; and, at her decease, left a large donation for the use of the institution. The poor children placed here were supported, partly by charity, partly by the proceeds of the land cultivated by negroes. The building, constructed of wood, 70 feet by 40, was furnished with an excellent library; but the situation was unhealthy, and the institution did not flourish. About thirty years after its erection the house was consumed by fire, or by lightning, with the library and all the furniture it contained.

Slaves. The introduction of slaves was at first prohibited by the laws of the colony; but the interests of the planters gradually prevailed over the letter of the law; and, when the colony passed from the hands of the trustees under the royal authority, slaves were

openly imported in great numbers. In 1773 their number was 14,000. By the present laws the person who brings a slave within the state, and sells or offers him for sale, within a year from the time of his introduction, is liable to a fine of 1000 dollars, and five years, imprisonment in the Penitentiary. But persons emigrating into the state may bring their own slaves with them. Any person who maliciously dismembers or deprives a slave of his life, is to suffer “ the same punishment as if the offence had been committed on a free white person, except in case of insurrection, and unless the slave loses his life by accident, receiving moderate correction.” No laws can be passed for the emancipation of slaves, without the consent of their owners, and no slave can be set free, without the sanction of the legislature.

Agriculture. The agricultural productions of this state are wheat, Indian corn, rice, cotton, indigo, tobacco, and potatoes. * The soil of the interior parts, and the heat of the climate, are particularly favourable to the growth of tobacco and Indian corn. The cotton, of long staple, known by the name of

* Mean current price of articles of consumption at Augusta, in January 1817. D. C. D. C.

D. C. D. C. Flour, per barrel, 100

Lard,

0 15 Corn, per bushel, 1 0

Tallow,

0 18 Pork, per cwt. 8 0

Butter, 0 371 Beef, per lb.

0 23 0 25 Bacon, 0 13 0.18 Tobacco, percwt. 6 50 YOL. II.

hh

Butter,

late. All these institutions are to be supported out of the proceeds of 50,000 acres of land, and L.6000 sterling, in bonds, houses, and town lots in Augusta. Public property, to the amount of 1000 pounds, has been appropriated by the legislature for building and furnishing an academy in each county. About eight or nine years ago an academy was endowed at Lexington, seventeen miles from Athens, by Mr Mason, a native of Ireland.

Humane Institutions. In the year 1740 the first charitable institution, an orphan house, was founded by Whitefield, the celebrated preacher, near the seashore, at Savannah, on a spot of land granted by the state-trustees for this purpose. In 1749 Lady. Huntingdon purchased a tract of 500 acres, and stocked it with black slaves, for the support of this establishment; and, at her decease, left a large donation for the use of the institution. The poor children placed here were supported, partly by charity, partly by the proceeds of the land cultivated by negroes. The building, constructed of wood, 70 feet by 40, was fur nished with an excellent library ; but the situation was unhealthy, and the institution did not flourish. About thirty years after its erection the house was consumed by fire, or by lightning, with the library and all the furniture it contained.

Slaves.-The introduction of slaves was at first prohibited by the laws of the colony; but the interests of the planters gradually prevailed over the letter of the law; and, when the colony passed from the hands of the trustees under the royal authority, si

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Sea Island cotton, which grows best near the coast, and on the adjacent islands, yields a greater price in the market than any other kind. The produce of an acre is about 600 pounds in the seed. Cotton is also cultivated on the pine lands, which produce three, four, or five crops without manure. The seed of the indigo plant is sown in April, and the first crop is cut in July, when it has attained the growth of two feet and a half.

There are usually three cuttings in the season. The mean produce of thirty acres has been estimated at 1300 pounds. The sugar-cane is now cultivated along the coast, and to the distance of 120 miles in the interior. Further north, the frost, which often takes place after several days of considerable warmth, kills the shoots in spring; and the natural fruit, when it approaches maturity, is apt to burst. The shoots are protected from the frost, which sometimes prevails, by covering them with dry grass. It is stated, that the produce of an acre under good cultivation is from 2000 to 4000 pounds of sugar. * Rice was introduced about twenty years after the first settlement in 1773, and has been continued till lately, when the pernicious effects of its cultivation on the health of the inhabitants along the borders of the

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* Major Butler, on 85 acres, cultivated by 17 hands, produced 140,000 pounds of sugar, and 75 hogsheads of molasses. John N1Queen planted 48 acres in cane, average product 20,000 canes per acre; 5000 canes, the product of one-fourth acre, yielded 600 gallons of juice, which boiled down, made 672 lbs. sugar, and may lose 50 pounds in draining, leaving 622 lbs. or 2488 lbs. of sugar per acre. (Walsh's American Register.)

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