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the space of forty-five days, eighty-four inhabitants out of 5000. *

The introduction of rice crops along the borders of the Savannah river has been the cause of much unhealthiness; and, with a view to obviate this evil, four dollars an acre are allowed to those planters who substitute for the rice crops others which do not require irrigation.

The trade winds prevail on the southern coast of Georgia during the summer, and contribute to refresh the warm atmosphere. Captain Macall resided eighteen months at Point Peter, near the mouth of St Mary's river, with a garrison of nearly 100 troops, and only one man died during that period, of a consumption of the lungs. He further remarks, that the sea-shore is generally healthy, except in the vicinity of stagnant fresh water. +

Manners and Character.-Dr Morse observes, -“ that the Georgians are friendly and hospitable; that horse-racing and cock-fighting prevail in the upper counties; that the young men are fond of hunting, and all classes are fond of dancing; and that they are greatly addicted to every kind of gambling.” Against this pernicious practice a law was passed in 1816.

Georgia was at one time the principal retreat of a race of men called Crackers, who were chiefly descended from convicts, and led a wild and vagrant life, like the Indians, with no other effects than a rifle and a

* See Medical Repository of New York for 1810, p. 135. + P. 25

blanket, and subsisting upon the deer, turkeys, and other game which the woods furnish. These migratory bands disappear as the country is settled. The legislature of this state brought great reproach upon itself by a transaction in 1795. Twenty-two millions of acres, in the western parts of the state, were sold for 500,000 dollars, to certain companies, who resold the land to persons in the middle and eastern states. In the following year the next legislature declared the sale illegal, but retained the money, which, however, has since been refunded. The Georgians ratified the federal constitution unanimously in January 1788.

History. The establishment of the colony of Georgia was the consequence of the jealousy and disputes existing between the courts of Spain and Great Britain. Under the pretext of converting slaves to the Christian religion, the governor of Florida seemed to have instructions to give freedom and protection to all those who fled from the Carolinas to St Augustine, where they were converted into soldiers, and formed into a corps called the “ Black Regiment.” To prevent the escape of their slaves, the Carolinians built and garrisoned a fort on the Alatamaha river, which being soon afterwards destroyed by fire, the whole southern frontier was left open and unprotected. This circumstance induced the government to favour the project of a colony to be established between the river Savannah and Alatamaha ; and a patent was accord. ingly obtained from George II. on the 9th of June 1732, for the establishment of an independent and separate province, to be called Georgia, in the name of


a company of twenty-one trustees, for the same num. ber of years, after which, such form of government was to be established as the king or his successor should appoint. In virtue of this charter were granted to the lords proprietors all the lands and territories from the Savannah river, along the sea-coast, to Alatamaha river, and westward from the heads of these rivers respectively, in direct lines to the south seas, with all islands on the eastern coast, within twenty leagues of the land, not already inhabited or settled. It happen. ed that James Edward Oglethorpe was named execu. tor for the disposal of a considerable legacy, left by a wealthy Englishman, for the deliverance of insolvent debtors, whom their creditors detained in prison ; and this donation, with others procured from generous ine dividuals, and L. 10,000 Sterling advanced by the government, were employed for the establishment of a colony, where this unfortunate class of men might find an asylum. An hundred and fourteen persons embarking at Gravesend, under the direction of Mr Oglethorpe, arrived in January 1733, and laid the foundation of the town of Savannah. In the month of May ensuing, another vessel arrived with new colonists, and fresh provisions; and shortly after fifty families were sent by the commissaries ; so that, during the first year, 618 persons were embarked, of whom 320 were men, 113 women, 102 boys, and 83 girls. In the year 1735, 150 Highlanders arrived from Scotland, and the same year, Oglethorpe, who had visited England with Tomochichi, chief of the Indian nation, his wife, and other Indians, returned with 300 more,


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to increase the rising colony. A treaty was conclud. ed with the Creek Indians, who ceded lands to the colonists. In 1735, the number of Europeans who had arrived in Georgia was estimated at more than 1700. Others arriving soon afterwards, banished froni Saltsburg by the blind zeal of the bishop, founded Old and New Ebenezer. In the year 1737, there were five towns and some villages in the province. The capital, Savannah, contained 140 dwelling-houses.

During the first eight years of the colony, 1521 persons were supported at the expence of the trustees, of which 915 were British subjects, 606 foreign Protestants, and of the whole 686 were capable of bearing arms. The expence of each poor person was 330 dollars. The contributions amounted to L.112,000, of which L. 94,000 were furnished by the British parliament, and the remaining balance raised by private contributions. A lot of fifty acres was granted to each settler, on conditions of culture established by the trustees, who were to supply them with mulberry trees, yines, oranges, and olives, from a public garden, or nursery, formed near the east of the town. Notwith. standing the efforts of government and the trustees, the colony did not prosper. Its progress was retarded by the hostilities of the Indians and Spaniards, by intestine divisions, and by the supposed unhealthiness of the climate.

In 1740, an unsuccessful attack was made upon St Augustine ; and, two years afterwards, the Spaniards retaliated by invading Georgia, but were repulsed. They continued, however, to harass the colony till the


year 1761, when the disputes as to limits were settled by extending the boundaries of Georgia to the Mississippi on the west, and to the thirty-first parallel of latitude and the St Mary's river on the south. Various circumstances kept alive a hostile spirit in the Indians, and the colony, in other respects, not answering the expectations of the trustees, in 1752 they surrendered their charter to the crown ; by which, in 1754, John Reynolds, a captain in the navy, was appointed governor. The colonists, however, were not long satisfied with their condition under this new plan of government. Finding, in common with the other states, that infringements were made on their rights by a junto in London, the legislature, in 1770, transmitted a remonstrance to Dr Franklin, agent for Massachu. setts at the English court. The governor, offended at this step, dissolved the assembly. This and other arbitrary acts roused the spirit of the colonists, who, on the 18th January 1776, made the governor and council prisoners. The government continued in the hands of the colonial legislature till December 1778, when a British force took possession of the country, and retained it till the close of the revolutionary war. During the late war with Great Britain this state lost 2000 negro slaves.

The Constitution, of which the outlines were drawn up in the year 1775, was only adopted in 1785. It was amended in 1789, again revised, amended, and settled and confirmed in 1798 by a general convention of the representatives of the state. The legislature consists of a senate and house of representatives. The

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