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hickery, grow to a prodigious size, and at such distances from each other, as to admit the passage of a waggon, which is considered a great advantage to new settlers.

Animals. The animals are the same as in the Caro. linas. Those of prey are numerous around the swamps, and on the high ridges. Bears and deer are still abun. dant. An animal, called in this country the salamander, is found south of the Savannah river. In form and size it resembles the common rat, with a head and teeth like those of the squirrel, a small eye like that of the mole, and fine brown-coloured hair. Alligators are numerous in the Alatamaha, and are seen in Ebenezer creek, with. in twenty-two miles of Savannah ; their eggs, deposited in the sand, are hatched by the heat of the sun. In. stances have occurred of their taking provisions in the night from the boats fastened to the banks. But so little are they feared, that boys swim in the waters which they frequent, and since the date of the first es: tablishment, only two persons have been killed by them.

They often, however, destroy hogs and small animals which happen to pass along the borders of the rivers. They disappear in cold weather in autumn, and do not re-appear till spring. On the approach of rainy weather they make a noise like that of a man snoring. The murana syren, or swamp puppy, in shape resem. bles an eel, about two feet long, covered with fine burnished scales; it has sharp teeth, and two short legs, furnished with toes and claws. When the male is se. parated from the female, they make a noise like a young puppy, hence the vulgar name. They live upon frogs and water insects; in pursuit of which they cut holes

through the rice dams in the night, aud are very troublesome to the planter. The magophex, or gouf. fre, has a shell fifteen inches long, and twelve wide; and it can move along the ground with a man standing on its back. It lives on the pine barrens in holes ten feet deep, inclining downwards, so as to form an angle with the surface of about thirty degrees. It seldom ventures far from its den, and closes itself in its shell at the appearance of danger ; in the bottom of its retreat young rattlesnakes have been found in the beginning of summer. It lives on vegetables. *

Honey-bees abound on the swamps eastward of Flint river. Musquitoes, and other winged insects, are nu. merous in low marshy places, and very troublesome in the summer evenings. In the southern parts the cochineal insect swarms on the leaves of the Cactus opuntia, and propagates in July; in winter they find shel. ter on the under side of the leaf. Sand-fies near the coast are also very troublesome in spring and autumn; and especially in cloudy evenings and mornings. The lantern fly, as it is called, is very common, and produces a pleasing effect in the summer evening, by the shining matter emitted by the dilatation of the two last rings of the abdomen.

Fishes. The rivers abound with excellent fish. The most common are sturgeon, sheep-head, cat-fish, shad, whiting, bas, rock-fish, mullet. Shad has been

* From the Savannah Republican, containing a brief view of the history and productions of the stale.


taken in the Savannah, at Augusta, 130 miles from the mouth of the river, near the close of January. The shell-fish are oysters, crabs, and shrimps. The oysters are very fine..

Population. The number of inhabitants,
In 1749, was 6,000, including blacks.
In 1790, 82.548. Slaves, 29,264

Free blacks, 398
In 1800,

59,699 102,086, Free blacks, 1,919

Slaves, 107,019 In 1810, 252,433, Free blacks, 1,801

Increase of whites in the last ten years, 45 per cent.: of blacks, 1933. According to the last enumeration, there were,

Males. Females. Under 16 years of age,

39,953 37,520 Between 16 and 45,

28,407 25,811 Above 45,

7,485 6,238

Total, 75,845 69,569
In May 1817, the population of Savannah was 7624,

Civil or Administrative Division of the State of Geor.

gia, with the Population of each County and Chief Town, in 1810, the year of the late Enumera.

tion. Counties.

Population. Chief Towns. Population Baldwin,


1,257 Bryan,

2,827 C. H. Bullock,

2,305 Statesburg. Burke,

10,858 Waynesborough, Camden,

3,941 St Mary's, Chatham, 13,540 Savannah,

5,213 Clarke, 7,628 Athens,

273 Columbia,

11,242 Applington, Effingham,


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3,417 11,679 13,330 10,569 7,573 6,111 8,587 2,210 6,228 4,555

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Carnesville, Brunswick. Greensborough, Sparta, Jeffersonton, Monticello, Louisville, Clinton, Dublin. Riceboro. Lincolnton, Danielsville. Darien, C. H. Madison, Lexington, Hartford. Eatonton, Augusta, Jacksonborough, C. H. C. H. Marion.


229 222

180 2,476


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252,433 The inhabitants of Savannah, and the places near the sea, are for the most part natives of Georgia, and resemble the Carolinians in their appearance and ha

bits ; but those of the interior parts, and near Augusta, are emigrants from Virginia. In Augusta and Sa. vannah there are many Irish, and some Scotch.

The Muskogee, or Creek Indians, who inhabit a hilly country, within the limits of the state, have a great number of cattle, swine, and poultry, and cultivate to. bacco, rice, Indian corn, potatoes, fruits, and all esculent plants. In 1802 they surrendered to the United States a large tract of country, which the latter ceded to Georgia, of which it forms the south-west angle. In 1774 the Creeks and Cherokees ceded to the king of Great Britain several millions of excellent land, for the amount of debts due to the English traders. A congress was held by the governor for this purpose, at which were present a great number of the kings and head men. On the 22d January 1818, the Creek In. dians ceded, for the sum of 120,000 dollars, two considerable tracts of land to the United States, to be annexed to the state of Georgia. These lands lie among the branches of the Ocmulgee, Appalachicola, and Cattahouche rivers. *

Diseases. In the low country bilious and intermitting fevers prevail during the months of August and September, which is called the sickly season ; but those who inhabit the more elevated parts are exempt from these autumnal maladies, and the rich planters remove thither during their prevalence. In the autumn of 1798, the yellow-fever, at Savannah, carried off, in

* Letier from D. B. Mitchell, Esq. agent for Indian affairs.

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