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for seven years; those of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas for five; which is also the term of service or clerks, the attorney-general, and provincial secretary. These officers are commissioned by the person who administers government; but they may be re-appointed, and are also liable to be dismissed, if, upon being impeached by the assembly, they are adjudged by the council to be guilty of misconduct. The treasurer remains in office for one year only.

Justices courts, which are held by one justice of the peace, have jurisdiction in cases not exceeding 100 dollars, with the right of appeal to the Court of Common Pleas, which consist of an indefinite number of judges, and is held four times a-year. The Orphan's Courts, or Courts of Probate, composed of the judges of the Common Pleas in each county, are held four times a-year. Courts of Oyer and Terminer, composed of a judge of the Supreme Court, and two or more judges of the Common Pleas, are held twice ayear during the sittings of the circuit courts in each country, where a judge of the Supreme Court always presides. The Supreme Court, consisting of three judges, sits four times a-year at Trenton. The Court of Chancery, a Court of Law and Equity, of which the governor is sole judge, is also held at the same place four times annually. The High Court of Appeals, consisting of the governor and legislative council, sits twice a-year at the seat of government. The number of attornies at law in 1811 was seventy-nine.

The common law of England, and also the statute law, when not repugnant to the principles of the charter, and the right of trial by jury, have been retained, though subject to alterations by the legislature. In all the courts the rules of the English law are generally observed. The estates of persons who have been guiity of suicide are not forfeited, but descend to the lawful heirs. (16th, 17th, and 23d articles of the Constitution.)

The judiciary officers of the United States for New Jersey are:

A judge, with a salary of
An attorney, with '•
A marshal, •
A clerk,

1200 dollars.
200
200
fees. *

Before the revolution, there were seven different courts: 1. Of chancery; 2. The governor and council; 3. The prerogative court, relating to the probate of wills, and granting letters of administration on intestate estates; 4. Courts of vice-admiralty; 5. Supreme courts, holden four times a-year through the counties; 6. The,sessions and courts of common pleas, for business in the respective counties; 7. The justices' court, for trial of causes of six pounds and under, in a summary way. For debts above forty shillings, a jury of six persons was allowed, the governor being chancellor. (Smith, p. 500.)

Military Force.—The governor, and in his absence the vice-president of the council, is commander in chief of the military forces. The captains and all other inferior officers are chosen by the companies in the re

* Register of the United States, p. 14.

spective counties; the general and field officers by the council and assembly. In 1815, the militia consisted of—infantry, 29,244 ; artillery, 788; dragoons, 1636; riflemen, 1041; including 20 staff-officers, 159 fieldofficers, and 560 captains. It is divided into fortyone regiments of infantry, five of cavalry, and one of artillery.

List of the number of acres of land, dwelling-houses, and out-houses, in the respective counties oj lite state of New Jersey; taken by the assembly, under the act of congress, laying a direct tax in the United States; with the valuation of the slaves in the state, and the total valuation of property subject to the tax, as reported by the principal assessors of each district; and the valuation, as fixed by the board of principal assessors. In some particulars, the accuracy of this valuation has been questioned.

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Religion.—On this subject the constitution declares, that no person shall be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshipping God according to his own conscience, or be compelled to attend any place of worship contrary to his own faith and judgment, or to pay tithes, taxes, or other rates for the maintenance of ministers, contrary to his belief or voluntary engagement; that there shall be no establishment of one religious sect in preference to another; that all persons professing a belief in the faith of any Protestant sect, and demeaning himself peaceably, shall be capable of be*ing elected into any civil office, and shall freely participate of every privilege and immunity.

Until the year 1810, the Presbyterian churches of New Jersey belonged to the Presbytery of New York. In 1811, there were sixty-four Presbyterian churches, but the number of clergymen was only forty-two, besides eight licentiates. The Dutch Reformed church includes thirty-three churches, with twenty-one clergymen. The Episcopalians twenty-four churches, and ten clergymen. The Baptists, according to the report of a general convention held in Philadelphia in May 1717, have twenty-four churches, including 1741 members. The number of communicants of the Methodist persuasion was 6739, of whom 500 were people of colour. There are nine Congregational churches, with with five clergymen. The Friends or Quakers have forty-four meeting houses. Education.—Of late, attention has been awakened to the importance of education, which had formerly been much neglected. Grammar schools have been established in the different towns. There are sixteen incorporated academies, and two colleges, one at Princeton, named Nassau-Hall; the other at Brunswick, named Queen's College. Princeton College, or Nassau-Hall, founded in 1738, has been endowed with contributions from different provinces. It is under the direction of twenty-four trustees, one of whom is the governor of the state, and another the president of the college. The number of students is about eighty. The professors are, 1. Of moral philosophy, theology, history, and eloquence. 2. Mathematics, natural philosophy, and astronomy. 3. Chemistry, and its application to medicine, agriculture, and manufactures. The lower classes are instructed by tutors; and there is a grammar-school for the elements of the Latin and Greek languages, writing, and arithmetic. The students, before they receive their first degree in the arts, are examined publicly in April and in August. «The • annual income of the college is about 1000 pounds sterling, exclusive of certain funds for the education of poor and pious youth destined for the church, given by Mrs Esther Richards of Rahway, to the amount of 10,000 dollars, and by the late Mr Hugh Hodge, who bequeathed, for the same purpose, an estate in Philadelphia, yielding from 200 to 300 pounds a-year. The college library and philosophical apparatus, which were almost wholly destroyed, first by the British army during the revolutionary war, and afterwards by fire in 1802, have been since re-established by donations, chiefly from Scotland. The actual number of volumes is between 2000 and 3000. Queen's College, in New

VOL. II. D

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