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the produce of a good soil, well manured, is from twenty to twenty-five bushels an acre. Indigo. The culture of indigo was introduced from Antigua, in 1742, and its growth was so much encouraged, that in 1754 216,924 pounds were exported, and the annual average quantity before the revolution increased to 1,107,660 pounds; but, on account of the large importations from the East Indies into Eng. land, its culture has ceased to be profitable. Hemp is cultivated for sale in the upper country; particu. larly between Broad and Saluda rivers. Flax is raised there for domestic purposes. Barley has been suc cessfully cultivated on the low grounds, which produce from fifty to seventy bushels an acre; and, ripening early in May, a second crop may be raised in the same year. Madder has also been successfully cultivated. Hops are raised in small quantity. The olive tree has been naturalized, and the fruit is equal to that imported. The sugar cane has been successfully cultivated on James's island, situated at the distance of a mile from Charleston. The culture of silk was in. troduced as early as the year 1757, and great quanti. ties were raised during several years; but it has been lately neglected, owing probably to the high price of labour, compared with that in France and Italy. It appears, that mulberry trees grow everywhere spon. taneously, and that the silk-worm abounds in the woods. The plant Benné, or Sesanum orientale, is now cultivated for the excellent oil which the seed yields, in the proportion nearly of nine-tenths of its weight. It is sold at the rate of four dollars a gallon,
is a substitute for olive oil, to which it is not inferior, and the substance which remains, after expression, is a profitable food for cattle and poultry.
Grasses. The cross, or crab grass, is preferred for hay. It is sweet and nourishing, and in some places has yielded from four to five tons per acre. Lucerne and crowfoot, on a similar soil, yield nearly the same quantity. The joint grass affords good pasture for sheep. The oat grass, which grows in rich tide land, when cut green, is an excellent food for horses. The mildness of the climate affords great agricultural advantages. The cattle range and fatten in the woods throughout the winter. A considerable number of sheep are raised. The average fleece of the common breed is about three pounds; and some have yielded from fourteen to fifteen pounds. Fruit.
The peach, nectarine, plum, and cherry, are excellent, but liable to be attacked by an insect * in its larva state. Melons are very plentiful. The peach sometimes grows to an enormous size, measuring a foot in circumference. Grapes also thrive well, some bunches weighing three pounds. † The sweet orange is now successfully propagated, by ingrafting it on the sour orange.
The plough is much used in the middle and upper country. In the lower the principal instruments are the hoe and the spade. In the two first the pro
+ Essay of Mr Johnson, vice-president of the Literary and Phi. losophical Society at Charleston.
ductions are carried to market on waggons with narrow wheels, drawn by four or six horses, which carry two or three tons weight. On the plantations sledges are employed to draw wood, rails, and small timber. In the low country the cart with broad wheels, drawn by oxen, is preferred.
Price of Land.--Some tracts of the first quality of cotton land have been sold as high as sixty dollars an acre ; the average price is from six to forty. The price of rice land is about twenty dollars an acre. In Pendleton district in 1808, where about one-third of the surface was then cleared, and one-fourth more fit for cultivation, low grounds sold from twenty to forty dollars ; high grounds, one-half to five dollars. On Edisto Island the price of land was from thirty to sixty dollars an acre; some portions were leased at six and a half dollars per acre. In Orangeburgh district lands were then sold at from one-half dollar, the lowest, to twenty dollars, the highest price per acre. The price of a steam-engine, on the plan of Evans, of an eight horse power, was 3000 dollars.
Manufactures.-In the upper parts of the state, domestic manufactures supply nearly all the wants of the people, except in the articles of salt and sugar.
Products of Mineral Substances.--Iron Works. The first iron works, erected in 1773, were destroyed by the English during the revolutionary war, and rebuilt in 1783. On Allison's creek, in York district, there is a forge, a furnace, a rolling mill for making sheet iron, and a nail manufactory. On Middle Ti. ger river, there are iron works on a small scale ; also on the Enoree river and Reedy river, on the north fork of Saluda river, on George's creek, and Twenty-six Mile creek. In 1802, an air furnace was erected on a neck of land between Cooper and Ashley rivers, where good castings are made. There are several manufactories of gunpowder in the upper country. The nitre is imported from Kentucky and Tennessee.
Products of Vegetable Substances. On the waters of Pine Tree creek, on Little river, and Reedy river, and in the middle and upper country, are various grist, saw, and oil mills. One of the wheat mills, on the plan of Evans, boults and packs fifty barrels of superfine flour per day; others manufacture from twelve to sixteen. There are three rope-walks within the state ; two near Charleston, the other near Columbia. The last manufactures annually eighty tons of excellent cordage, rope, and cables. The cane or reed is used for angling rods and weaving implements. The trunk of the Cabbage palmetto, which is of a spongy nature, and resists the attack of the salt water worms, is employed for the construction of wharfs. It is also used in the building of forts. The leaf serves for the ma. nufacture of hats, which are said to be very durable. The red bay tree, on account of its fine texture, is employed for cabinet work and furniture. The live oak, the red and white cedar, white scaly bark, and chestnut oak, and white iron oak, are valuable for shipbuilding ; the red and Spanish kind for staves and rails. The pitch and yellow pine serve for masts, yards, and planks. The berries of the candleberry myrtle yield a wax, from which, when bleached, excellent candles and
soap are made, of a kind which has a great advantage over those made of tallow in hot countries. The ber. ries of the tallow tree also yield a substance which is employed for soap and candles. The Palma Christi, or castor-oil tree, is cultivated here, and gives from 100 to 150 gallons of oil per acre. The leaves of the Yaupon or Cassina shrub, which grows on the coast, were formerly much used by the Indians in the form of tea, and furnished an article of profitable commerce with those of the west. Ginseng, which grows near the mountains in the upper country, was an article of considerable commerce, but has become scarce since the great demand made by the Cherokee Indians. The bark of the root of the dogwood is considered as an infallible remedy against worms. Cider is manu. factured in the interior from a species of apple, which hangs on the tree till the beginning of frost.
In 1810, the quantity of flax-seed oil was 100 gal. lons, value 100 dollars ; spirits, 436,853 gallons, value 296,060 dollars ; 202 grist mills, and 4200 barrels of flour, value 42,000 dollars. • Products of Animal Substances.-Coarse woollens are manufactured throughout the state. Silk was formerly cultivated for exportation to London by a colony of Swiss emigrants at Parisburgh, a small village on the Savannah river. The whole amount of manufactures in 1810, according to the report of the marshal of the district, was 2,174,157 dollars ; besides the amount of flour, classed as a doubtful article, 42,000 dollars.
Commerce. About the beginning of the eighteenth