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Pendleton, Greenville, Spartanburg, and York. The Table mountain in Pendleton district is elevated 3168 feet above the level of the surrounding country, and 1300 above the Atlantic Ocean; the Oolenoy mountain is supposed to have a still greater elevation. From the sea shore, to the distance of eighty miles within land, the country is a uniform plain, with a gentle ascent of 200 feet above the level of the ocean; it has been much stripped of the fine trees which covered it, at the arrival of the first European settlers. From the extremity of this plain, it gradually rises into hills. The soil varies greatly, and four kinds are distinctly marked. 1. The pine barren, which is generally light and sandy, and of little value except for the wood which it produces, and from which it derives its name. 2. Savannahs or tracts of low land, from fifty to sixty acres in extent, without stones or timber, or any vegetable production, except wild flowers and a coarse herbage. 8. Morasses and low grounds, along the borders of rivers. 4. The high lands or more elevated region. The soil of the upper country is a dark and fertile mould, that along the borders of rivers is also very fertile; but some of the richest parts are subject to inundation from the 1st of October to the middle of May, and consequently unfit for the culture of corn or cotton. The pine land occupies the greatest portion of surface, but is often intersected by narrow slips of oak land which extend along the rivers, creeks, or marshes. A chain of sandy hills from twenty to forty miles in breadth, stretches from the river Savannah to the upper part of Pedee river, and to North Carolina. Some of


them are elevated 200 feet above the level of the adjacent country. Mr Drayton observes, that the country may be properly divided into the lower, middle, and upper country. The first extending from the sea to the Sand hills; the second from these hills to the falls of the rivers; and the third from this last line to the north-western mountains. The pine lands of the lower country consist of a light blackish earth, which rests on a stratum of sand of a few feet in depth, supported by a layer of marl or clay. In some places, the sand is from fifteen to twenty feet deep, extending to a bed of small broken shells, and other marine productions. The veins of oak lands which intersect these barrens, which have a substratum of clay or marl, are very fertile, and produce different species of oak, gum, hickery, maple, dog-wood, elm, beech, wal. nut, and the short-leaved pine. The morasses, swamps, and bogs, which are numerous, have a sour spungy soil, which is favourable to the growth of the bay-tree, the andromeda, china briar, and ferns. The most fertile soil is along the borders of the rivers, being a dark brown loam, with a strong light blue clay underneath, to the depth of fifteen or twenty feet; it is almost exclusively reserved for the cultivation of rice. The swamps are covered with heavy timber, with oak, ash, gum, cypress, maple, tupelo, elm; in some places they are intersected by rising grounds, on which grow the laurel, beech, plane-tree, cottontree, prickly-leaved and deciduous holly, the wild orange, persimon, wild swamp, whortleberry, and dwarf palmetto. On one side of all the rivers, and generally on both, the margin is a swamp from half a mile to three miles in breadth. The Sand-hills produce nothing but small pine trees, small shrub oaks, and one or two species of lupine, and many places are completely sterile ; but the vallies into which the vegetable mould has been carried by the rains are very fertile. The hills of Santee in the middle country, which give rise to the secondary streams, are elevated 200 feet above the surrounding lands, and their soil, consisting of sand, clay, and gravel, irregularly blended, produces oak, hickery, and a great variety of shrubs. Above this middle region and the first cataracts of the rivers, the soil is fertile, of a dark colour, reposing in some places on a stratum of reddish brown clay, in others on marl; loose stones and rocks appear, and the surface is broken into hill and dale to the base of the mountains. The more elevated parts of the hills are covered with oak, hickery, sassafras, and persimon, sometimes interspersed with chestnut and short-leaved pine. The lowlands produce the plane tree, ash, beech, elm, the swamp oak, locust, walnut, and mul. berry.

Temperature.-Throughout the whole extent of low country the heat of summer is intense, and after the heavy rains of July and August, the air is loaded with noxious vapours, which generate bilious fevers and other diseases. The climate is liable to sudden changes of temperature, much greater than in the tropical countries. * From the year 1791 to 1798, the

* From the 18th to the 24th July 1817, the range of the thermometer was about 90°. On the 23d, it rose to 93° or 94', in

thermometer never rose above 93° nor fell below 17o. The difference between the mildest and hottest summer is about 70 ; and between the mildest and severest winter 17o. The winter is remarkably mild ; snow seldom falls near the sea; and as it is never to a greater depth than one or two inches, it is soon dissolved by the warm rays of the sun; but in the upper country it is sometimes from twelve to eighteen inches deep. It is a curious fact, that, before the year 1791, snow had seldom been seen in Charleston, and since that period it has not been unfrequent. * The almond, olive, orange, lemon, and fig tree are sometimes destroyed by the frost, but their roots send forth new shoots in spring. Dr Ramsay observes, “ that at Charleston, the number of extreme warm days is not more than thirty in a year, and three of these seldom follow each other. There are about twenty nights when the closeness and sultriness of the air prevent sleep, but this unpleasant state of the atmosphere soon yields to cooling and refreshing showers.

The healthiest months are April, May, and June, though children, during this period, are subject to diseases of the bowels. The most sickly months are Au. gust and September. April and May the driest ; June, July, and August, the wettest. November is

cool situations, and so intense was the heat that two or three persons dropped down in the streets and expired. (Walsh's Amer. Reg.)

* On the 15th January 1816, a very unusual cold was experienced at Columbia, where the thermometer, at sunrise, fell 10° be. low the freezing point.

considered the most agreeable. January and Febru. ary are the coldest. The cold weather seldom commences before December, and terminates in March. In the year 1802 thunder was heard distinctly, and in a few cases very loudly, on forty-eight days between the 7th of April and 30th of November. The annaal average quantity of rain from 1797 to 1807 was 49.3; the greatest quantity in 1799 was 83.4; the least in 1800 36.6. The average annual number of rainy days from 1802 to 1807 was seventy-two. There is three weeks' difference between the climate of the upper country and that of Charleston. The frost com. mences earlier in the former, and continues longer; but the weather is not so variable. In the upper coun. try the thermometer (Fahrenheit) fluctuates in summer from 650 to 86°, and sometimes rises to 94o and 950. In winter it ranges between 20' and 55°, and falls to 10° or 11° during the greatest cold, which lasts but a few days. The climate of the Santee hills, which are situated between eighty and ninety miles from the ocean, resembles that of the upper country, where the mercury rises to the ninety-fourth or ninety-fifth degree. Though this chain borders on the lower coun. try, the general -temperature is favourable to health. . The vegetation is so early, that in the month of February the red flowering maple, the alder, plum, and peach tree, are in full blossom. Agricultural labours commence in March, and continue till June. In July and August the country is afflicted with torrents of rain, hurricanes, thunder and lightning. It has been several times visited by violent whirlwinds, :

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