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The whole coast, and the mouths of the rivers, are covered by sand-banks which obstruct the approach of vessels of large size, except at Brunswick, situated near the embouchure of Cape Fear river, near the southern extremity of the state, where there is a port with sixty feet water. A steam-boat plies between Fayetteville and Wilmington.

Canals.From the great lake of the Alligator swamp a navigable canal has been cut nine miles in length for the conveyance of lumber and produce, called the Chesapeak and Albemarle canal. Other canals have been completed along Buckhorn falls in Cape Fear river, seven miles below the junction of Deep and Haw rivers, and along Smilie's falls in the same river. A canal twenty feet in width runs from Phelps lake, in the Dismal swamp, to the head of the river Skappernong, five and a half miles.

A Light-House is to be erected at or near Cape Lookout, for which service a sum was appropriated by congress in 1816. By the same act 15,000 dollars were given for rebuilding the Baldhead light-house. There are also light-houses at Cape Hatteras and at Shell Castle.

The Bridges in this state are still very rude and inconvenient, many of them consisting of trunks of trees, or pieces of rough plank laid parallel to each

coastwise within the same period, 380,000; making together 1,112,500 dollars. The imports consist of foreign merchandise, cider, cheese, iron, and tin-ware, hats and shoes from New England.

other, without fastening, in crossing which accidents often occur even on the main post road.

Houses are chiefly of wood covered with white paint.

Capes.—One of the most remarkable on the coast is called Cape Hatteras, from which a ridge of sand, of half a mile in width, extends outward, with only ten or twelve feet water at low tide, on which many vessels have perished. * To the south is another cape called Cape Lookout, where, before the year 1777, there was an excellent harbour, which has been since choked up with sand.

The Roads, like those in Virginia, are generally in a bad condition.

Inventions and Discoveries claimed by Citizens of this

State.

It was a negro slave of this state who discovered what is by many considered as a sovereign remedy for the bite of a rattlesnake ; and for which he received his freedom and L. 200 from the assembly. This consists in taking internally the juice of the horehound and plantain; and applying externally to the part affected a poultice of the braised plants.

Works relating to the History and Geography of this

State.

1. Hern's (Robert) Brief Description of Carolina. Gresham College, London, 1666.

2. Lawson's (John) History of North Carolina, 1718, London, in 4to, or Journal of 1000 miles travels among the Indians from

* The seaman's observation is, " If the Bermudas let you pass, you'll get it at Cape Hatteras."

South to North Carolina. This traveller was surveyor-general of North Carolina in the year 1700, and was the first who explored the back country, which seventy years afterwards was examined by Dr Mitchell.

3. Brickall's History of North Carolina. 1735.

4. Williamson's (Dr) History of this State. 2 vol. in 8vo. 1812, Philadelphia, with a Map.

5. Pillson (Dr G.) on the Topography and Diseases of Green, ville, or Tar river, North Carolina. Inserted in the Medical Repository of New York, 5 vol. p. 137.

Maps.—There is a Map of this State without date, on one sheet, by Samuel Lewis; another on three sheets, by Price and Strother, dated 1808.

CHAPTER XXIV.

SOUTH CAROLINA. *

Situation And Boundaries.—-This state is situated between 32° and 35° 8' north latitude, and between 1° 24' and 6° 10' west longitude from Washington. On the east it extends along the coast of the Atlantic 170 miles. On the south-west and west it is separated from Georgia by the Savannah and Tugelo rivers; on the north and north-east it is bounded by North Carolina; and on north-west by Tennessee. Its length, from the mouth of the Santee on the Atlantic, to the Apalachian Mountains on the north-west angle, is about 340 miles. Area,—24,080 square miles, of which lie above the falls of the rivers, and

14,510 between the falls and the Atlantic Ocean.

Aspect of the Country, and Nature of the Soil.— Different ranges of finely wooded mountains, known by the names of Table, Oolenoy, Occonee, Paris, the Glassey, Hogback, Tryon, and King's Mountains, traverse this country, passing through the districts of

* This name was given, in 1729, when it was separated from North Carolina.

Pendleton, Greenville, Spartanburg, and York. The Table mountain in Pendleton district is elevated 3168 feet above the level of the surrounding country, and 4300 above the Atlantic Ocean; the Oolenoy mountain is supposed to have a still greater elevation. From the sea shore, to the distance of eighty miles within land, the country is a uniform plain, with a gentle ascent of 200 feet above the level of the ocean; it has been much stripped of the fine trees which covered it, at the arrival of the first European settlers. From the extremity of this plain, it gradually rises into hills. The soil varies greatly, and four kinds are distinctly marked. 1. The pine barren, which is generally light and sandy, and of little value except for the wood which it produces, and from which it derives its name. 2. Savannahs or tracts of low land, from fifty to sixty acres in extent, without stones or timber, or any vegetable production, except wild flowers and a coarse herbage. 3. Morasses and low grounds, along the borders of rivers. 4. The high lands or more elevated region. The soil of the upper country is a dark and fertile mould, that along the borders of rivers is also very fertile; but some of the richest parts are subject to inundation from the 1st of October to the middle of May, and consequently unfit for the culture of corn or cotton. The pine land occupies the greatest portion of surface, but is often intersected by narrow slips of oak land which extend along the rivers, creeks, or marshes. A chain of sandy hills from twenty to forty miles in breadth, stretches from the river Savannah to the upper part of Pedee river, and to North Carolina. Some of

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