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Education. The establishment of common schools being provided for by the constitution, the legislature, in 1808, passed a law for their organization. The masters were to receive such public salaries as might enable them to instruct the youth at low prices. It also provided for the establishment of one or more universities for the encouragement and promotion of use. ful learning. The University of North Carolina is situated on Chapel Hill, in Orange county, twentyeight miles west of Raleigh, and fourteen south of Hillsborough. The students from North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky, were lately about 100. It is under the direction of forty trustees, five from each district. Its funds consist of all debts due to the state by sheriffs, or other holders of public money prior to the year 1783, of all escheated property within the state, and of lands given as a donation by the legislature. In 1791, L. 5000 were lent by the state to the trustees to enable them to erect the necessary buildings, consisting of a tenement of three stories

180 by 40 feet, and another of two stories 100 by 40, both of brick. There is a house for the president, and one for the steward, constructed of wood. There is but one professor for the sciences, and another for languages. The college contains a moderate library, and some philosophical apparatus.

There are academies of considerable reputation at Warrentown, Fayetteville, Williamsborough, Hillsborough, Guilford, Newbern, and Lumberton. The North Carolina Medical Society" was incorporated by the legislature in the year 1800.

Agriculture. The climate of this state is very favourable to agricultural pursuits. Cattle and hogs run wild in the woods. All the different kinds of grain cultivated in the northern states grow here in perfection. Indian corn, which grows well every where, is less productive; but it is sweeter and more easily cultivated. In the low parts near the sea, where the country is inundated by the overflowing of the rivers, rice and indigo are successfully cultivated. The swampy land on the south side of Albemarle Sound is the most valuable for this purpose in the United States. The chief products of the hilly country are wheat, tobacco, rye, oats, barley, and flax. Along the rivers there are fine tracts of meadow land covered with rocks of cattle. Wheat is cut in the beginning of June, Indian corn early in September. * Cotton is cultivated and



* Price of Provisions, &c. at Wilmington, in July 1816.

Dollars. The bushel of corn, - of salt,


- of peas, (black eye,)
The barrel of four, 196 lbs.
- of pork, 200 lbs.

of tar, 32 gallons,
of pitch, 320 lbs.
of turpentine, do.

of rosin, do.
The gallon of spirit of turpentine,
The pound of cotton, (upland,)
- of gunpowder,

of nails,

of soap, Plank and boards, per 1000 feet, Shingles, 22 inches, of cypress per 1000,

thrives on high sandy dry places. The labour of one man will produce 1000 pounds in the seeds, or 250 pounds fit for manufacture. Tobacco is raised in places where the soil is favourable to its growth. An insect of the curculio genus devours the seeds of the wheat in the ear before it is ripe. A species of grasshopper, known by the name of locust, appears at intervals of fourteen or fifteen years. In June 1816 they were so numerous that their noise rendered the sound of the cow-bell inaudible at the distance of 200 yards. The crops of Indian corn are exposed to injury from the woodpeckers which frequent the neighbourhood of villages and plantations. There are two species of them, the one with a white bill, black body, and a fine tuff of white feathers, the other with a head and neck of a red colour, with black belly and wings, and a white stripe below. - An agricultural association has been formed for the purpose of establishing plantations on certain parts of the Alligator swamp, which are found to surpass all other lands of the state in strength and richness. No lands can be purchased from the Indian natives but on behalf of the public, by authority of the general assembly.

Value of Lands and Houses as ascertained by the direct tax : In 1799,

Lands, 27,909,479
Houses, 2,932,893

Value of lands, houses, and slaves in 1914,

30,842,372 92,157,487

Increase in 15 years,


Of this increase 11,000,000 was in the value of lands and houses, the value of the slaves at 300 dollars each, amounting to about 50,000,000, taking their number as it stood in the census of 1810.

Products of Mineral Substances in 1810. Gunpowder, pounds, 3000, - value 2,550 dollars, Salt,

- 3,800 Iron works are established in Lincoln and Johnson counties, on the Yadkin river, in the counties of Guilford, Surry, and Wilkes. Gold.-In 1810 about 1341 ounces of gold were delivered at the mint of the United States, amounting in value to 24,689 dollars, which was chiefly obtained from the gravelly beds of streams in Cabarrus county. The purest is twenty-three careets fine, and is superior in quality to the metal used in the English and American coins. *

Products of Vegetable Substances in 1810. Flax-seed oil, gallons, 5,230,

value 5,265 dollars. Stilts, 1,886,691,

758,005 Paper, reams, 2,400,

6,000 Rope-walks,

26,000 From the pitch pine (Pinus tæda, Lin.) which covers the high sandy soil of the low country, an immense quantity of turpentine, tar, and pitch, is extracted. These commodities formerly enriched many farmers, who gained from the labour of one man between L. 100 and L. 200 a year. The turpentine is obtained by the simple process of making two slits in the

* Bruce's Mineralogical Journal, Vol. I.'

trunk of the pine, each about a foot in length, under which vessels are placed to receive the resin, or gum, as it flows. For extracting tar, a circular basin, or floor of potters' earth, is made, and so perforated as to allow the escape of the resinous matter, which is received in carts placed underneath as it runs from the burning pine. Pitch is formed by boiling the tar in pots of iron, or in vessels formed of potters' earth. Staves of a superior quality are made of the white and red oak. Brandy is made from peaches, as in other states; and whisky from rye, corn, and barley, for home consumption. Wine is made from the wild grape of the country. There is a paper-mill at Salem belonging to a company of Moravians.

Products of Animal Substances. The rivers furnish great plenty and variety of excellent fish, several of which are cured dry and salted. There is a great consumption of bacon and pork, both salted and smoked, the quality of which is excellent. The whole amount of manufactures in 1810, according to the marshal's report, was 5,323,323 dollars.

Commerce.- In the year 1753 the exports amounted to upwards of L. 80,000 Sterling, and a number of articles were omitted. (See Account of European Settlements, Vol. II. p. 260.) The ports of entry are six in number, Edenton, Cambden, Washington, Newbern, Wilmington, and Plymouth. The average ex. ports for 1785, and the three succeeding years, were nearly as follows: Shingles,

quantity, 20,000,000 Staves and heading,


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