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had already been established for several years, on Charles river, near Old Town creek. The last was dispersed by the Indians, in 1663, in revenge for the loss of their children, who were sent to Massachusetts for the purpose of education, as was pretended by some of the settlers, emigrants from that state. In 1665 another colony arriving from Barbadoes, purchased a considerable tract of lands near Cape Fear, from Sir William Berkeley, who allowed three years for the payment of quit-rents, and held out the fol. lowing terms, to encourage emigrants to settle in their neighbourhood: Every man who joined them before the 1st of April 1667 was to have 100 acres of land in fee; the same quantity for each of his children, and also for men seryants; for women servants and slaves, the portion was fifty acres, on condition of bringing a good musket, ten pounds of powder, and twenty pounds of lead, and provisions for six months. To encourage servants, every male of this description, when free, was to have 100 acres of land, two suits of clothes, and necessary tools for his trade. This colony, consisting of 800 persons, carried on a commerce with Barbadoes, exchanging timber and staves for the productions of that colony. The first legislative assembly was formed in Albemarle county, in 1667, and two years afterwards a plan of government, drawn up by the celebrated Locke, was signed by the lords proprietors. Though this constitution fell far short, in its principles, of those which Locke had maintained in his writings, it was still too liberal for the rulers of that day. Lord Effingham, governor of Virginia, was instructed “ not to suffer the use of a printing-press, on any occasion whatever;" and Sir William Berkeley thanked heaven, “ that there was not a printing-press in any of the southern provinces.” The increase of the colony was retarded by mal-administration, by civil commotions, and Indian hostilities. In 1677 the trade of the colony was monopolized by adventurers from New England, who, to avoid the payment of duties created by the revenue laws, trafficked with the colonists at their doors, and introduced the use of ardent spirits. The arrest of Gillam, one of these traders, created a revolt, the president and six members of the council were imprisoned, and the insurgents exercised authority during the space of two years.
The neighbouring Indians had been much weaken.. ed by a pestilential fever, and different engagements with more remote tribes, so that they had ceased to be an object of fear; but finding that encroachments were made on lands reserved in acts of cession, they formed the plan of a general massacre of the whites, 130 of whom fell by the tomahawk in one night. The number of fencible men at this epoch did not exceed 2000; the Indian warriors of Corees and Tuscaroras amounted to 1200; and, elated with this sanguinary success, they continued their hostility until the arrival of troops from South Carolina, under the command of Colonel Craven, by whom they were subdued, and obliged to sue for peace. In 1717, the Tus. caroras, finding their numbers greatly reduced, abandoned the country, and joined the confederacy of the five nations; other tribes continued for some time
to harass the frontiers; and the proprietors, discou. raged, sold the country to the crown in 1729, for the sum of 17,500 pounds sterling, after which it was erected into a separate province. The colony soon afterwards received an increase of population, by the arrival of Moravians, who settled between the rivers Yadkin and Dan, and of Irish and Scotch Presbyterians, who established themselves in the north-western parts; but its progress was again retarded, by an insurrection in 1765 of royalists, or tories, under the name of regulators, who, demanding “ justice for poor Carolina," bound themselves by oath to resist with arms the proposed stamp on paper and vellum, and new duties on imported articles. Defeated by governor Tryon, with the loss of 800 men, they sued for pardon. The unpopular laws were afterwards repealed, various improvements were introduced, and the province, fertile in resources, continued to prosper, until the commencement of the revolutionary war, of which it was for some time the theatre. Brunswick, on Cape Fear river, the first settled town in the province, was destroyed during the war, and has never been rebuilt. The Carolina militia were beaten at Moore's creek bridge, in 1776, but they were victorious at the Briar creek, in 1779, at Waxhaws, in 1780, and at the court-house at Guilford, in 1781.
Civil or Administrative Division of the State of • North Carolina, with the Population of each · County and Chief Town in 1810, the year of the
Chief Towns. Wadesborough.
Counties. Anson, Ash, Beaufort, Bertie, Bladen, Brunswick, Buncombe, Burke, Cabarrus, Camden, Carteret, Caswell, Chatham, Chowan, Columbus, Craven, Cumberland, Currituck, Duplin, Edgecomb, Franklin, Gates, Granville, Green, Guilford, Halifax, Haywood, Hertford, Hyde, Iredell,
9,382 6,985 7,863 12,423 10,166
4,867 11,420 15,620 • 2,780 6,052 6,029 10,972
Washington, Windsor. Elizabethtown. Brunswick. Ashville. Morgantown. Concord. Jonesburg. Beauford. Leasburg. Pittsborough. Edenton, Whitesville. Newbern, Fayetteville, Indian Town. Sarecto." Tarborough, Louisburg. C. H. Williamsborough. C. H. Martinsville, Halifax.
Wynton. Germantown. Statesville.
Counties. Johnson, Jones, Lenoir, Lincoln, Martin, Meckenburg, Moore, Montgomery, Nash, New Hanover, Northampton, Onslow, Orange, Pasquotank, Person, Pitt, Perquimons, Randolph, Richmond, Robeson, Rockingham, Rowan, Rutherford, Sampson, Stokes, Surry, Tyrrel, Wake, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Wilkes,
7,528 10,316 21,543 13,202
6,620 11,645 10,366
3,364 17,086 11,004 3,454 8,687 9,084
Chief Towns Smithfield. Trenton. Kington. Lincolnton. Williamston. Charlotte. Alfordstown. Henderson. C. H. Wilmington, C. H. Swansborough, Hillsborough, Nixonton. Roxboro. Greenville. Hartford, C. H. Rockingliam. Lumberton, Dambury. Salisbury, Rutherfordton. C. H. Upper Sara. Salem, Elizabethtown. Raleigh, Warrenton, Plymouth. Waynesborough. Wilkes, C. H.
Constitution. The plan of government was formed in 1776 (18th December) by a provincial congress as,