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milar to that of South Carolina. In both there is a regular gradation of heat as you advance to the southward. The winter is mild ; the summer hot and sul. try; the autumn is pleasant. Vegetation is somewhat earlier than in Virginia, but is liable to be injur. ed by the frosts. The changes of temperature are sudden and frequent ; a very cold night is often succeeded by an intensely hot day. In the hilly and mountainous parts, the climate is mild and healthy; neither the cold of winter nor the heat of summer is disagreeable ; but in the low country, and along all the southern sea-coast, the miasms are injurious, particularly in the season of autumn. Snow falls but seidom, and in small quantity, nor does it lie more than a few days. Frost is never felt before the middle of October, nor after the first of April. There is a great difference of temperature, both in winter and summer, between the maritime and mountainous parts. In summer, the heat is moderated by cool breezes throughout all the hilly country, which commences from 100 to 150 miles from the sea ; and the climate of the mountains. is as temperate and healthy as ir most parts of the American territory. · Bays.-Pamlico sound, which stretches across the south-eastern parts of the state, is a kind of inland sean from ten to twenty miles in breadth, and 100 in length. It is separated from the ocean by a sand beach, called Hatteras and Chiconocomank banks, through which there are several passages, or inlets. That of Ocra. cock, on the south-eastern side, admits vessels of burden, which ascend to some distance up the Neuse and Pamlico rivers. Core sound, with which it communicates, extends from its southern extremity to Cape Lookout. Albemarle sound, situated to the north of Pamlico, is sixty miles in length, and ten in breadth, Their waters communicate with each other, and the former with Currituck sound, which extends to the northern boundary.

Rivers.—The Roanoke, or Albemarle river, rises in Virginia, on the eastern side of the Apalachian mountains, and runs, in a south-eastern direction, to the sound of the same name. Its two branches in Vir, ginia, known by the names of the Staunton and the Dan, have been already described. The Roanoke is navigable nearly thirty miles from its mouth, for vessels of considerable size, and boats from twenty to forty tons can ascend to the falls seventy miles from its mouth. Those carrying from 150 to 200 barrels of produce can ascend to Halifax, six miles below the cataracts. The Pamlico, or Tar river, which takes its rise near the northern boundary, runs in a south-east course 180 miles, into Pamlico sound. It is navigable for vessels drawing nine feet water to Washington, thirty miles from its mouth, and for large boats, called

flats, to Tarborough, fifty miles higher. The Neuse - river, which rises a little to the west of the sources of

the former, also empties itself into Pamlico sound, after a winding south-east course of 220 miles. It is navigable from the sea, through the Ocracock inlet, fiftywo miles for sea vessels, ninety miles for large, and 160 for small boats. The southern branch of Neuse river, called Trent river, is navigable for sea vessels twel ze miles from its confluence, and boats ascend eight miles higher. Cape Fear river, so called from the remarkable cape at its outlet, is formed by the union of Haw and Deep rivers, which, after a course of ninety miles from the mountains in the north-western parts of the state, unite seven miles above Buckhorn falls, after which the river takes a south and south-easterly course of 160 miles, to the Atlantic Ocean. Near its outlet, on the eastern side, it receives two considerable branches, running in a southern course, which have the name of North-east Cape Fear and South river. The former is navigable, for vessels drawing ten or eleven feet, to Wilmington, situated on the eastern branch, about thirty miles from the sea. The western branch is navigable for sloops twenty-five miles higher, and boats ascend to Fayetteville, 150 miles from the sea. The north-west and mountainous parts of this state are watered by the upper branches of the Yadkin and Catawba rivers, which will be described under South Carolina. The New river and North Fork branches of the Great Kenhawa also run from the north-western angle of this state. The southwestern side is watered by the branches of the Little Pedee and Wacanaw river, and other smaller streams. North Carolina is not highly favoured with respect to internal navigation, for none of the rivers admit of shipping more than sixty miles. Their mouths are crossed by sand bars, formed, as some have supposed, by their current and others, by the action of the gulf stream. These bars, preventing the free escape

of the waters, occasion the banks to be overflowed af. ter a heavy rain.

Islands.-Cape Island, known also by the name of Bald Island and Smith's Island, is about eight miles in length from Cape Fear to New Inlet, and from one to three in width. The soil is light and sandy, and produces live oak, cedar, and the cabbage-tree. Cape Fear, the southern point, is situated in latitude 33° 52 and 78° 20 west longitude from Greenwich. This island was formerly joined to the main-land by a ridge of sand, which, about fifty years ago, was swept away by a strong wind, which forced the tide through, form. ing an opening, called the New Inlet, two miles wide, and sufficiently deep to admit the passage of vessels drawing eleven feet of water. · Minerals.--Iron ore exists in great abundance throughout the mountainous district. Gold ore is found in the sands and gravelly beds of streams, in Cabarrus county, near Rocky river meadow, and Long creek; but a bushel of sand yields but half a dollar's worth of gold. Small fragments of from four to fourteen pennyweights have been sometimes discovered ; and a piece of a pound weight was found, in 1809, in a corn field, in Anson county. Cobalt, combined with arsenic, exists in Buncombe county, at the foot of the mountains near Mackeysville. Limestone.-A ridge of calcareous stone extends across the state in a south-westwardly direction, crossing Dan river to the westward of the Sawra town, and the Yadkin, about fifty miles north-west from Salisbury; none is visible VOL. II,

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to the east of this ridge. Clay, resembling fuller's earth, is found near the subterranean wall in the county of Rowan. It is employed as a cement for the construction of chimneys, and is very durable...

Mineral Springs. In the counties of Warren, Montgomery, Rockingham, Lincoln, Rowan, and Buncombe, there are several springs of different medicinal qualities, resorted to for the cure of scorbutic affections, and other diseases. The spring in Buncombe county is situated near the French Broad river, and has a temperature of 104° of Fahrenheit. ,

Geological Phenomena.-Marine productions are found in all the low country, at the depth of eighteen or twenty feet below the surface, and masses of shells and sand, called shell rock, which exists in many places near the banks of rivers, and is employed for the construction of the walls of edifices. In the year 1816, the skeleton of an enormous shark was thrown up on the Meherrin river, near Murphysville, at the distance of fifty piiles from the ocean. A single joint of the spine weighed. 124 pounds; a tooth, 16 ounces. In the county of Rowan, twelve miles north-east of Salisbury, there is a subterranean wall several hundred feet in length, from twelve to fourteen feet in height, and twenty-two inches in width, formed of stones of irregue lar shape, and from one to twelve inches in length, all parallel to each other, and in a horizontal direction. The stones appear to contain iron. At the distance of six or eight miles another similar wall has been discovered, forty feet in length, four or five in height, and


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