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Value.

Gunpowder, . . 44,373

Maple sugar,* . 162,310 16,234.

Saltpetre, . . 144,895 21,293

The gross value of manufactures, excluding doubtful articles, was 3,611,029 dollars. The doubtful articles, consisting of maple sugar and saltpetre, amounted to 39,473 dollars.

Nitre.—In 1813, 100 workmen were employed in Big Bone Cave, in White county, in the manufacture of nitre, of which the produce was 500 pounds daily, sold at twenty-five cents a pound.

Commerce."The exports consist of cotton, tobacco, hemp, horses, live cattle, Indian corn, pork, fowls, potatoes, flour, saltpetre, flax, deer skins, ginseng, lumber, iron. The great staple productions are saltpetre, tobacco, cotton, hogs, and cattle. The imports consist chiefly of dry goods and groceries imported in waggons to East Tennessee from Philadelphia and Baltimore, and to West Tennessee by land to Pittsburgh, and thence down the Ohio and up the Cumberland

* Sugar is procured with so much ease from the maple, which is very abundant in Tennessee, that it is generally an object of attention with farmers. A farmer and his family can make 1400 or 1600 weight in a season, worth twelve and a half cents per pound. It is common at the tea-table, generally in a rough state, but by refining, can be made equal to the finest lump sugar. The sap runs most in frosty weather; and a tree in a good season will yield from fifteen to twenty, five gallons of sap. From 500 trees 2000 pounds of good maple sugar can be obtained; and the whole can be done by one man and three or four boys.—Palther's Travels', p. 123."

river. Orleans sugar, and some articles of groceries, are imported thence by the Mississippi: the freight was 5\ dollars per hundred weight by common boats, but is probably reduced since steam-boats were established. Nashville, situated on the south side of the Cumberland river, 190 miles from its mouth, with a population of 800 inhabitants, has twenty-seven mercantile stores. The great channel of trade is the Mississippi, and New Orleans the place of deposit. Other channels of shorter communication with the Mobile tide water have been projected; between the Hudassee and Coosee rivers for the country of East Tennessee, and between the Occachappo and Tombeckby for West Tennessee.

Exports from West Tennessee to New Orleans in

1817.

Tobacco, 10,000 hhds. . . 1,000,000 dollars.

Cotton, 1,500 bales, . 100,000

Pork and beef, . . 50,000

Butter, lard, and tallow, . 25,000

Corn and vegetables, . . 50,000

Sundries, . . 200,000

Castings, . » 20,000

Horses, sheep, and beef-cattle, 100,000

Books and Documents concerning this State.

1. Morse's Gesgraphy, Article Tennessee, in which he acknowledges to have received much valuable information from M. Blount, formerly Governor of this State.

2. Brown in his Western Gazetteer, Article Tennessee, front

p. 327 to 830 inclusive.

CHAPTER XXIII.

NORTH CAROLINA. *

Situation And Boundaries.—North Carolina is situated between 33° 50' and 36° 30'north latitude, and between 1° east, and7° west longitude from Washington. It is bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean; west, by Tennessee; north, by Virginia; and south, by South Carolina. Its greatest extent, from east to west, is 430 miles, and from north to south 100. The extent of the sea coast is 300 miles, along which the main land is separated from the ocean by a sound, formed by a sandy bank, extending 100 miles in length, and about one in breadth. Area.—50,500 square miles.

Aspect of the Country, and Nature of the Soil.— To the distance of sixty miles from the sea-coast, the country is perfectly level, with a sandy or marshy soil, except along the banks of rivers, where vegetable mould, three or four feet in depth, affords fine pasture and crops, particularly on the river Roanoke. Some of the middle region, above the head of tide water, is also

* The country of Albemarle was the first name of this state. In the beginning of the eighteenth century, it took that of the "Colony of North Carolina."

fertile; but between the flat and elevated country there is a tract forty miles in breadth, consisting of small sand-hills, interspersed with pitch pine, which is of little value for agricultural purposes. The northwestern parts of the state are generally mountainous, to the extent of 140 miles eastward from the western boundary. The highest ridge is known by the name of the Buncombe Mountains. On the eastern side, between the two great pieces of water, Pamlico and Albemarle sound, there is a swamp or marsh, known by ^he name of the Alligator Swamp, more than fifty miles in length, and nearly thirty in breadth. It is intersected by several streams, the largest of which is the Alligator river, an arm of the sound, extending a considerable distance, in a southern direction. The northeastern corner of the state, above the sound, is also marshy, and is crossed by streams which descend from Drummond's Pond, just above the northern line of boundary. This piece of water, which is several miles in. diameter, contains fish of an excellent quality. In the southern and south-western parts, there are also extensive swamps, the Dover, the Holly Shelter, and Green swamps. The last runs along Waccamaw lake, which has a communication with the river of the same name. It is supposed that the swamps, to the distance of forty miles from the coast, occupy one fifth of the surface. Several of them are from fifteen to twenty miles in diameter. *

Temperature.—The temperature of this state is si

» Williamson's History of Carolina.

milar to that of South Carolina. In both there is a regular gradation of heat as you advance to the southward. The winter is mild; the summer hot and sultry; the autumn is pleasant. Vegetation is somewhat earlier than in Virginia, but is liable to be injured by the frosts. The changes of temperature are sudden and frequent; a very cold night is often succeeded by an intensely hot day. In the hilly and mountainous parts, the climate is mild and healthy; neither the cold of winter nor the heat of summer is disagreeable; but in the low country, and along all the southern sea-coast, the miasms are injurious, particularly in the season of autumn. Snow falls but seldom, and in small quantity, nor does it lie more than a few days. Frost is never felt before the middle of October, nor after the first of April. There is a great difference of temperature, both in winter and summer, between the maritime and mountainous parts. In summer, the heat is moderated by cool breezes throughout all the hilly country, which commences from 100 to 150 miles from the sea; and the climate of the mountains is as temperate and healthy as in most parts of the American territory.

Bays.Pamlico sound, which stretches across the south-eastern parts of the state, is a kind of inland sea, from ten to twenty miles in breadth, and 100 in length. It is separated from the ocean by a sand beach, called Hatteras and Chiconocomank banks, through which there are several passages, or inlets. That of Ocracock, on the south-eastern side, admits vessels of burden, which ascend to some distance up the Neuse and

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