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Value of Lands and Houses, as established by the assessment for the direct tax.

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6,134, 108 In 1814, the value of lands, houses, and

slaves, with the exception of one district, 34,415,971

Difference, 28,281,863 The increase in the value of lands and houses was found to be 15,000,000

The slaves were estimated at 300 dollars each.

Manufactures. The legislature has granted premiums for domestic manufactures, with which fourfifths of the people are now clothed.

Statement of the Manufactures in 1810, according to the Report of the Marshal.

Value. Cotton mills, Cotton goods made in families, 1,790,504 yards. Other stuffs, . . 262,344 Looms, . .

17,316 in number. Fulling mills, Furnaces,

98,077 Bloomeries,

17,799 Forges,

110,438 Naileries,

128,236 Guns,

5,845 Tanneries,

95,077 Spirits distilled,

801,245 gallons. Paper mills;

15,500 Copperas,

50,600 lbs.

6,360 Glauber salts, .

591

148 Cables and cordages;

4,435

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Válue. Gunpowder,

44,373 Maple sugar, *

162,340

16,234 Saltpetre,

. 144,895

21,293 The gross value of manufactures, excluding doubtful articles, was 3,611,029 dollars. The doubtful articles, consisting of maple sugar and saltpetre, amounted to 39,473 dollars.

Nitre.--In 1813, 100 workmen were employed in Big Bone Cave, in White county, in the manufacture of nitre, of which the produce was 500 pounds daily, sold at twenty-five cents a pound.

Commerce. The exports consist of cotton, tobacco, hemp, horses, live cattle, Indian corn, pork, fowls, potatoes, flour, saltpetre, flax, deer skins, ginseng, lúm. ber, iron. The great staple productions are saltpetre, tobacco, cotton, hogs, and cattle. The imports consist chiefly of dry goods and groceries imported in waggons to East Tennessee from Philadelphia and Baltimore, and to West Tennessee by land to Pittsburgh, and thence down the Ohio and up the Cumberland

* Sugar is procured with so much ease from the maple, which . is very abundant in Tennessee, that it is generally an object of at. tention with farmers. A farmer and his family can make 1400 or 1600 weight in a season, worth twelve and a half cents per pound. It is common at the tea-table, generally in a rough state, but by refining, can be made equal to the finest lump sugar. The sap runs most in frosty weather; and a tree in a good season will yield from fifteen to twenty-five gallons of sap. From 500 trees 2000 pounds of good maple sugar can be obtained ; and the whole can be done by one man and three or four boys.--Palmer's Travels, p. 123.

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river. Orleans sugar, and some articles of groceries, are imported thence by the Mississippi : the freight was 54 dollars per hundred weight by common boats, but is probably reduced since steam-boats were established. Nashville, situated on the south side of the Cumberland river, 190 miles from its mouth, with a population of 800 inhabitants, has twenty-seven mercantile stores. The great channel of trade is the Mississippi, and New Orleans the place of deposit. Other channels of shorter communication with the Mobile tide water have been projected ; between the Hudassee and Coosee rivers for the country of East Tennessee, and between the Occachappo and Tombeckby for West Tennessee.

Exports from West Tennessee to New Orleans in

1817. Tobacco, 10,000 hhds.

1,000,000 dollars. Cotton, 1,500 bales,

100,000 Pork and beef,

50,000 Butter, lard, and tallow,

25,000 Corn and vegetables, .

50,000 Sundries,

200,000 Castings,

20,000 Horses, sheep, and beef-cattle,

100,000

Books and Documents concerning this State. 1. Morse's Geography, Article Tennessee, in which he acknow. ledges to have received much valuable information from M. Blount, formerly Governor of this State.

2. Brown in his Western Gazetteer, Article Tennessee, from p. 327 to 830 inclusive.

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CHAPTER XXIII.

NORTH CAROLINA. *

SITUATION AND BOUNDARIES.—North Carolina is situated between 33° 50' and 36° 30' north latitude, and between 1° east, and 7° west longitude from Washington.

It is bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean; west, by Tennessee; north, by Virginia ; and south, by South Carolina. Its greatest extent, from east to west, is 430 miles, and from north to south 100. The extent of the sea coast is 300 miles, along which the main land is separated from the ocean by a sound, formed by a sandy bank, extending 100 miles in length, and about one in breadth. Area.—50,500 square miles.

Aspect of the Country, and Nature of the Soil. To the distance of sixty miles from the sea-coast, the country is perfectly level, with a sandy or marshy soil, except along the banks of rivers, where vegetable mould, three or four feet in depth, affords fine pasture and crops, particularly on the river Roanoke. Some of the middle region, above the head of tide water, is also

* The country of Albemarle was the first name of this state. In the beginning of the eighteenth century, it took that of the “ Colony of North Carolina."

fertile; but between the flat and elevated country there is a tract forty miles in breadth, consisting of small sand-hills, interspersed with pitch pine, which is of little value for agricultural purposes. The north. western parts of the state are generally mountainous, to the extent of 140 miles eastward from the western boundary. The highest ridge is known by the name of the Buncombe Mountains. On the eastern side, between the two great pieces of water, Pamlico and Albemarle sound, there is a swamp or marsh, known by the name of the Alligator Swamp, more than fifty miles in length, and nearly thirty in breadth. It is intersected by several streams, the largest of which is the Alligator river, an arm of the sound, extending a considerable distance, in a southern direction. The northeastern corner of the state, above the sound, is also marshy, and is crossed by streams which descend from Drummond's Pond, just above the northern line of boundary. This piece of water, which is several miles in diameter, contains fish of an excellent quality. In the southern and south-western parts, there are also extensive swamps, the Dover, the Holly Shelter, and Green swamps. The last runs along Waccamaw lake, which has a communication with the river of the same name. It is supposed that the swamps, to the distance of forty miles from the coast, occupy one fifth of the surface. Several of them are from fifteen to twenty miles in diameter. *

Temperature. The temperature of this state is si

* Williamsor's History of Carolina.

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