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may be impeached by the asssembly, and tried by the senate. The judiciary power is vested in superior and inferior courts of law and equity, established by the general assembly. The judges of the superior courts are justices of oyer and terminer, and general jail delivery; and, in civil cases, on sufficient reason, supported by oath or affirmation, they have power to remove any cause from any inferior into the superior courts. The judges sum up the evidence, and declare the law, but they cannot charge juries with respect to matters of fact. No judge can sit on the trial of any cause, where the parties are connected with him by affinity or consanguinity, except with their consent. Such cases are determined by three judges, commissioned by the governor for this purpose. No fine exceeding fifty dollars can be laid on any citizen, unless assessed by a jury of his peers. In each county there are justices of the peace, who hold their offices during good behaviour. The number is so regulated, as not to exceed two for each captain's company, except that including the county town, which may have one more. Sheriffs, coroners, trustees, and constables, are appointed in each county by the county court, and hold their office for two years. The two first are commissioned by the governor. The treasurer is appointed by the state, and remains in office for two years. The officers of the United States for this district are a judge, with a salary of 1500 dollars per annum; an attorney with 200; a marshal with 200; and a clerk with fees. *
Finances.—The revenue arises from taxes on lands. slaves, and Horses. All, lands liable to taxation are taxed in an equal and uniform manner. Town lots are not taxed higher than at the rate of 200 acres for each; no freeman can be taxed higher than 100 acres, and no slave more than 200 on each poll. No manufactured article of the produce of the state can be taxed otherwise than to pay the fees of inspection. * The taxes are levied in the following manner: Every hundred acres of land pay 12£ cents to the state; a free poll 12^; a slave 25 cents; merchants and pedlars pay 20 dollars a-year in the county where they expose goods for sale.
Military Force.—Captains, subalterns, and noncommissioned officers, are elected in districts by the citizens subject to military duty. The field-officers are elected by the citizens in the respective counties; the brigadiers-general by the field-officers of the respective brigades ; the majors-general by the brigadiers and field-officers of the respective divisions. The governor appoints the adjutant-general; the majors-general their aids-de-camp; the brigadiers-general their brigade-majors; the commanding-officers of regiments their adjutants and quarter-masters. In the cavalry the captains and subalterns are appointed by the troops enrolled in their respective companies; and the fieldofficers of the districts by the captains and subalterns. Those who, from religious motives, refuse to bear arms, may be exempted by an act of the legislature from attending private and general musters. The militiai
* 26'th section of the 1st article of the constitu tion.
according to the official report presented to congress, amounted, in 1812, to 20,193, of whom S57 were dragoons. The inhabitants of this state, active, inured to the chace, familiar with the rifle, and proud of their rights, form a militia which no regular army could long despise.
Religion.—The religious denominations in this state are Presbyterians, Baptists, Roman Catholics, Protestants, Episcopalians, and Methodists. According to the report of the general convention of Baptists, held at Philadelphia, in May 1817, the number of their churches in Tennessee was 169, of members 9704.
Colleges.—There are four incorporated colleges, three of which in East Tennessee were incorporated by the territorial government, and a donation of 100,000 acres of land was granted by congress for their support. 1st, Greenville College, in Green county, established in 1794., is in a flourishing condition. 2d, Blount College, at Knoxville, entitled to the benefit of a donation from congress, which will amount to nearly 50,000 dollars. 3d, Washington College, in Washington county, which is said to be but slenderly endowed. 4ilh, Cumberland College, at Nashville, in West Tennessee, lately established, is entitled to a donation from congress, similar to that made to the institution at Knoxville. At the latter there is a president, with a salary of 1500 dollars a-year, and a tutor, with one of 1000 dollars. A grammar-school is connected with the institution, the master of which has a salary of 500 dollars. The college edifice, which is of brick, consists of three stories, and is divided into twenty-two rooms.
Academies.—A hundred thousand acres of land were allotted by congress for the support of an academy in each county, several of which have been established, and incorporated under very promising auspices.
Agriculture.—The agricultural productions are the same as in Kentucky, with the exception of cotton, which, in the western parts, forms a staple commodity. Wheat, barley, oats, rye, buck-wheat, Indian corn, flax, hemp, tobacco, indigo, rice, and cotton, thrive here luxuriantly. The limestone lands, which are well adapted to the culture of cotton, are in many parts deficient in water, which escapes through fissures in the beds of the streams. Lands of the first and second quality produce Indian corn and hemp, but for wheat the soil is too rich, unless reduced by two or three crops of maize, hemp, tobacco, or cotton. The third quality bears every kind of grain which is cultivated on the dry grounds of the Atlantic states. On Cumberland river, the common produce of Indian corn is from sixty to seventy bushels. That of cotton is usually 800 pounds to the acre. Fruit trees succeed extremely. The farmers in Upper Tennessee grow little artificial grass, but they have potatoes, carrots, and turnips. They have generally each a herd of pigs, which roves through the woods with the cows; and the latter have a bell strapped round their necks, as a means of finding them, iv
Value of Lands and Houses, as established by theassessment for the direct tax.
In 1799, Lands, 5,847,662 dollars. Houses, 286,446
In 1814, the value of lands, bouses, and
slaves, with the exception of one district, 34,415,971
Difference, 28,281,863 The increase in the value of lands and houses was found to be 15,000,000.
The slaves were estimated at 300 dollars each.
Manufactures.—The legislature has granted premiums for domestic manufactures, with which four-fifths of the people are now clothed.
Statement of the Manufactures in 1810, according to the Report of the Marshal.
Value. Cotton mills, . . 4 Cotton goods made in families, 1,790,504 yards. Other stuffi, . . 262,344
Looms, . . 17,316 in number. Fulling mills,
Furnaces, . . 6 98,077
Bloomeries, . 6 17,799
Forges, . . 7 110,438
ftaileries, . . 7 128,236
Guns, ; . 5,845
Tanneries, . . 59 95,077
Spirits distilled, . 801,245 gallons. Paper mills, . . 2 15,500 Copperas, . 50,600 lbs. 6,360
Glauber salts, . . 591 14g
Cables and cordages, . 4,435