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are springs so warm as to create an unpleasant sensation when applied to the body. They are frequented by valetudinarians from the Carolinas, Georgia, and the southern parts of Virginia, who have experienced their salutary effects in various disorders,

Forest Trees and Plants.-Oak of different species, black and white walnut, beech, red cedar, black and honey locust, ash, elm, mulberry, dogwood, sassafras, maple sugar-tree, papaw, cherry, hornbeam, and cucumber tree. In the eastern district there is a species of pitch pine useful for boards, timber, and tar. Red cedar, near the sources of some of the rivers, grows forty feet high, and four in diameter. The wild plum and crab-apple give a fine fruit. Cane, on the lowlands, grows to the height of twenty feet. The wild strawberry is of a delicious flavour. The wild grape vine yields tolerable grapes. Of Plants, the following are indigenous : wild hop, ginseng, Virginia, and the Seneca snake root, angelica, red bud, ginger, sweet anise, and spikenard, Carolina pink, Lobelia spicewood, senna, Indian physic. Of Grasses, wild rye, wild oats, clover and buffalo grass.

Animal Kingdom.--Mammoth. The bones of this animal were discovered near the upper branches of the Tennessee, at the depth of from three to seven feet, in a marshy soil near the salt-springs, which we have just noticed. Another animal formerly inhabited this region, armed with immense claws, one of which, though in a state of decay, found in a nitrous cave in White county, in 1810, weighed one pound and a half. Large herds of bisons were seen after the

first white settlements were formed; but they have now nearly disappeared. The elk and moose inhabit some of the mountainous parts, but are not numerous. The deer, constantly pursued by the hunter, have also become scarce, except on the mountains. Bears, panthers, wild cats, wolves, are yet seen in the forests, but seldom visit cultivated places; the beaver, otter, musk-rat, on the upper branches of Cumberland and Kentucky rivers. Racoons, foxes, squirrels, opossums, rabbits, polecats, minxes, are very numerous. Pheasants, partridges, pigeons, swans, wild turkeys, ducks, and geese. Parroquets frequent the salt licks.

Fishes.-There are catfish, some of which weighed 100 pounds. Buffalo fish, red horse, salmon trout, different from those of New England. Gar, perch, drumfish, eels. In the year 1799 a fish was caught in the river Holstein, near Knoxville, six feet in length, armed with scales, which being struck with a flint, gave fire. Alligators have been seen in Canyfort, a branch of the Cumberland.

Population.The number of inhabitants in 1791 was 35,691 ; 1795, 77,262; 1800, 105,602; 1810, 261,727, of whom 44,535 were slaves. Of this number 104,367 were of East Tennessee, and 160,360 of West Tennessee.

Manners and Character.—The population of this state, consisting chiefly of emigrants from the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia; from the New England states and Europe, has scarcely any uniform character.

They are said to be somewhat rough in their manners, but high-spirited and hospitable. A taste for reading


seen in


prevails among many of them; and, besides the Bibles and newspapers, “ Salmagundy,” the “ Olive Branch," and the History of the Late War, are works in great request. They cherish in their hearts a love of liberty, and a strong attachment to their country. They are all good horsemen, and expert at the rifle. Their stockings, clothes, and bedding, and even their candles and shoes, are generally of domestic manufacture.* Gaming is not so common as it was, since a law was passed, disqualifying persons convicted of praca tising it from holding any civil or military office for five years, and fining him in fifty dollars besides. Licensed tavern-keepers take an oath not to permit gaming in their houses. The practice of duelling has ceased, since the act passed against it by the assembly, subjecting the parties to outlawry.

Diseases.—The most prevalent are pleurisy and rheumatism. On both sides of the Cumberland moun. tains, where there is no stagnant water, the inhabitants are remarkably healthy. The author of the Western Gazetteer says, he has travelled extensively through the state, and never saw fifty acres of swampy ground except at the confluence of some of the large rivers. Fevers are almost unknown to the inhabitants, except in the river bottoms of the Cumberland, Tennessee, and Mississippi. Perhaps in no country are diseases so rare, or physicians less employed ; children also are remarkably robust and healthy. (P. 328.) - Indians.—The Cherokees and Chickasaws are the

* Palmer's Travels, p. 127, 128.

only Indian tribes who reside within this state. According to their tradition, they are the remains of a once powerful nation, subdued by the Spaniards, against whom they inherit a strong hostility. The towns of the Cherokees are in East Tennessee, those of the Chickasaws to the south of West Tennessee, and their hunting grounds lie between the rivers Mississippi and Tennessee, and south of Duck river, Those of the Cherokees are in the southern parts of the state, to the east of the former.


Civil or Administrative Division of the State of Ten.

nessee, with the Population of each County and Chief Town, in 1810, the year of the last Enumeration. Counties. Number of Inhabitants, Chief Towns. Anderson,

3,959 Bledsoe,


Marysville. Blount,

3,259 Maryville. Campbell,



4,798 Tazewell. Cook,


Newport. Granger,

6,397 Rutledge. Greene,

9,713 Greenville. Hawkins,

7,843 Rogerville. Jefferson,

7,309 Dandridge. Knox,

10,171 Knoxville.

2,504 Washington. Roane,


Kingston. Sevier,

4,595 Sevierville. Sullivan,

Blountville. Washington,

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7,740 Jonesborough.


17 VOL. II.

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West Tennessee.
Number of Inhabitants. Chief Towns.

8,242 Shelbyville.
15,608 Nashville.
5,730 Winchester.
4,546 Picklaske.
5,401 Williamson.
6,504 Fayetteville.

10,359 Columbia.
5,643 Monroe.

7,270 Springfield.
10,265 Jefferson.
13,793 Gallatin. .
11,649 Dixon's Springs.
11,952 Lebanon.
13,153 Franklin.
4,028 Sparta.
5,725 M. Minville.

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History. This country, which formed a part of Carolina, according to the second charter of Charles II. was inhabited by the Cherokee Indians, by whom the first colonists, consisting of above sixty families, in the year 1754, were nearly destroyed. Their settlements were not renewed till 1774, when the Indians, refusing to join the British standard, were attacked and driven towards the Kenhawa. The country then belonged to North Carolina, and delegates, in 1776, were sent from this district to the convention held for the pur.

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