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4. Amboy Bay, lying between Staten island and Middleton, is fifteen miles in length, and twelve in breadth.
Rivers.--1. Hackensack River, which rises in the state of New York, runs parallel with the Hudson forty miles, and joins the Passaick, as the head of Newark bay, from which it is navigable, to the distance of fifteen miles. 2. Rariton River is navigable, to the distance of sixteen miles from its mouth, in Rariton Bay. 3. The Passaick, which takes its rise in the state of New York, and has a southerly course of about sixty-five miles to its outlet in Newark Bay, is navigable to the celebrated falls, or cataract, a distance of ten miles. 4. Maurice River is navigable for vessels of a hundred tons, to the distance of twenty miles, from the Delaware Bay, into which it empties. 5. The Muscanecunk, another branch of the Delaware, is forty miles in length. The sea coast is indented with a number of small streams, or creeks.
Lakes.-On the top of a mountain, in Morris county, is a piece of water, three miles in length, one and a half in breadth, from which flows a continual stream.
Mineral Kingdom.--Iron ore. There are seven mines in the mountain of the county of Morris. Iron bog ore is found in the sandy tract towards the south, at Balstow, on the head waters of Little Eg, Harbour River ; and in the south-western parts, where it is renewed by deposition from water. Brown scaly iron ore abounds near the surface, in the northern parts of Burlington county. Ore of copper occurs in Bergen county, near Newark Bay. The mine discovered in 1719, and wrought at different periods, yields about 75 per cent. of pure copper. Copper ore is also met with at New Brunswick, and at Rocky Hill, in Somerset county. Antimony is said to have been discovered in 1808. Lead ore, in the township of Hopewell, four miles from Trenton. Black lead, in limestone, at Sparta, in Sussex county. Native silver. ? Native copper, at Woodbridge, in a blackish friable rock, disseminated in grains ; also in Schuyler's mines. Loadstone, or native magnet, at Schooley's mountain. Soapstone, of a whitish colour and compact structure, in Montgomery county, twelve miles from Philadelphia. Magnesia, at Hoboken, on the estate of Mr John Stevens, in an uncombined state, discovered by Dr Bruce. Ochres, in different places, which are employed as paints; white, yellow, black, green, and red. * Coal, on the Rariton river, below New Brunswick, and at Pluckemen. Gypsum, in the county of Sussex. Slate, in Hunterdon county, near the Delaware, seventy-five miles above Philadelphia. Freestone, in the township of Aquakanock, and county of Newark, where there are nineteen quarries. Zeolytes and serpentine are found at Hobocken. Barytes, in Sussex county. Marl, in the counties of Monmouth and Burlington. In the latter it is of a greenish colour, containing shells. The skeleton of a shark, in a state of preservation, was discovered in it some years ago. Amber, in Crosswick's Creek, four miles from
Trenton, in small grains of a yellow and whitish colour, reposing on carbonated wood; also near Woodbury, in a bed of marl.
Mr Smith observes, * that, on quitting the Pennsylvania shore, you leave the granite ridge, and there is nothing but a loose sandy soil, of a siliceous nature, interspersed with breccia, or rounded pebbles, imbedded in a very ferruginous cement.
Mineral Springs. There is a cold medicinal spring, in the county of Hunterdon, near the summit of the Musconetung mountain, and another in Schooley's mountain, in the town of Washington, and county of Morris, of late celebrated for its efficacy in cases of calculous concretions. The spring, situated in a deep defile between two beautifully wooded mountains, discharges a gallon in two minutes and a half, in all seasons. Its temperature is 52° of Fahrenheit. †
Forest Trees.-White cedar and black pine abound on the eastern coast. The hills are covered with oak, hickery, chestnut, poplar, ash, &c. The sugar maple tree grows along the Delaware ; the quercitron in the
* Medical Repository, 3d vol. p. 152.
+ It contains a little more than one-third of its bulk of carbonic acid gas, in a state of combination; 16.50 grains of the residuum of a certain portion of the water evaporated gave, muriate of soda, 2.35; muriate of lime, 0.5; muriate of magnesia, 4.40; carbonate of lime, 3.59; sulphate of lime, 0.65; carbonate of magnesia, 0.40; silex, 0.80; carbonated oxide of iron, 2.60; loss, 0.11.*,
. • Chemical Examination by Dr Macneven, contained in the 1st volume of the Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society, 1815.
vallies, where it rises to the height of eighty feet; hickery, in moist low places.
Animals.—The cougouar, bear, and wolf, have nearly disappeared. Deer have become rare. In 1680 they were in such plenty, that seven or eight fat bucks were brought in daily, by the Indians, to some of the settlers of West Jersey, at eighteenpence the quarter, (Smith, p. 112, 177.) The racoon ( Ursus lotor ) is very common in low places; the red and grey fox abound; otter and beaver are rare. Wild fowl are ducks, geese, pigeons, pheasants, partridges, plover, and a great variety of smaller birds. Snakes were so numerous at the time of the arrival of the West Jersey commissioners, in 1677, that they were frequently seen on the hovels of the Quaker settlers whom they brought thither. There are rattle-snakes, black snakes, wampums, and other species.
Fishes.-Along the coast, in the rivers, and streams, are various kinds of fish. The most noted are sturgeon, stockfish, sheepshead, horse-mackerel, blackfish, sea-bass, herring, munches, perch, sun-fish, drum, shad, shell-fish, black-turtle, clams, mussel-crabs, oysters. It was one of the earliest eulogiums of this state, that at Amboy Point there was plenty of brave oysters, (Smith, p. 181.) The inhabitants of the seacoast derive a great portion of their subsistence from the fisheries.
Table of the Progress of Population. In 1738 it amounted to 47 367, 3,981 including blacks. 1745
to 61,403, 1784
511,423 to 184,139,
72,792 free blacks. 1800
512,422 to 211,149,
> 4,402 free blacks. 1810 to 245,562,
7,843 free blacks. By the last census, there were,
Males. Females. Under 16 years of age, . . 56,728 53,849 Between 60 and 45,
42,625 42,553 Above 45, - - . - 16,004 15,109 Total,
115,357 111,511 New Jersey is the twelfth state in the Union, in respect of population.
Diseases. The temperature on the sea-coast, subject to rapid changes, is unfavourable to health. On the borders of the Delaware, bilious and intermitting fevers prevail in autumn ; but in the hilly parts, diseases are rare, and many persons arrive at the age of eighty. The yellow fever prevailed in the au. tumn of 1798, in the village of Port Elizabeth, supposed to have been generated by stagnant waters in the neighbourhood. Of ninety-seven inhabitants, thirteen persons were attacked by the disease, and six died.
Manners and Character. The population being composed of Hollanders, Germans, Scotch, Irish, and emigrants from the New England states, or their de. scendants, has no uniform character. * The neces.
* By the first law published in 1692 at Elizabethtown, the punishment of death was inflicted for undutifulness on the part of children towards their parents, smiting or cursing them, unless provoked by motives of self-preservation, and the complaint and proof